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The events underlying senescence induced by critical telomere shortening are not fully understood. Here we provide evidence that TERRA, a non-coding RNA transcribed from subtelomeres, contributes to senescence in yeast lacking telomerase (tlc1Δ). Levels of TERRA expressed from multiple telomere ends appear elevated at senescence, and expression of an artificial RNA complementary to TERRA (anti-TERRA) binds TERRA in vivo and delays senescence. Anti-TERRA acts independently from several other mechanisms known to delay senescence, including those elicited by deletions of EXO1, TEL1, SAS2, and genes encoding RNase H enzymes. Further, it acts independently of the senescence delay provided by RAD52-dependent recombination. However, anti-TERRA delays senescence in a fashion epistatic to inactivation of the conserved histone methyltransferase Dot1. Dot1 associates with TERRA, and anti-TERRA disrupts this interaction in vitro and in vivo. Surprisingly, the anti-TERRA delay is independent of the C-terminal methyltransferase domain of Dot1 and instead requires only its N-terminus, which was previously found to facilitate release of telomeres from the nuclear periphery. Together, these data suggest that TERRA and Dot1 cooperate to drive senescence.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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A histone-lysine N-methyltransferase and catalytic subunit of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2. It methylates LYSINE 9 (H3K9me) and LYSINE 27 (H3K27me) of HISTONE H3, leading to transcriptional repression of the affected target gene. EZH2 also methylates non-histone proteins such as GATA4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and the nuclear receptor RORA. It regulates CIRCADIAN CLOCKS via histone methylation at the PROMOTER REGIONS of the circadian genes and its repressive activity is also important for the identity and differentiation of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.
A class II histone deacetylase that removes acetyl groups from N-terminal LYSINES of HISTONE H2A; HISTONE H2B; HISTONE H3; and HISTONE H4. It plays a critical role in EPIGENETIC REPRESSION and regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, as well as CELL MOTILITY through deacetylation of TUBULIN. It also targets misfolded proteins for clearance by AUTOPHAGY when MOLECULAR CHAPERONE-mediated folding is overwhelmed.
Process by which cells irreversibly stop dividing and enter a state of permanent growth arrest without undergoing CELL DEATH. Senescence can be induced by DNA DAMAGE or other cellular stresses, such as OXIDATIVE STRESS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the methylation of the epsilon-amino group of lysine residues in proteins to yield epsilon mono-, di-, and trimethyllysine. EC 188.8.131.52.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Alternative medicine are whole medical systems that did not fit with conventional medicine as they have completely different philosophies and ideas on the causes of disease, methods of diagnosis and approaches to treatment. Although often overlapping, co...