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L-Lysine is widely used as a nutrition supplement in feed, food, and beverage industries as well as a chemical intermediate. At present, great efforts are made to further decrease the cost of lysine to make it more competitive in the markets. Furthermore, lysine also shows potential as a feedstock to produce other high-value chemicals for active pharmaceutical ingredients, drugs, or materials. In this review, the current biomanufacturing of lysine is first presented. Second, the production of novel derivatives from lysine is discussed. Some chemicals like L-pipecolic acid, cadaverine, and 5-aminovalerate already have been obtained at a lab scale. Others like 6-aminocaproic acid, valerolactam, and caprolactam could be produced through a biological and chemical coupling pathway or be synthesized by a hypothetical pathway. This review demonstrates an active and expansive lysine industry, and these green biomanufacturing strategies could also be applied to enhance the competitiveness of other amino acid industry.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of industrial microbiology & biotechnology
Cadaverine is used for the synthesis of the novel bio-polyamides 54, 56, and 510. Here, we examine the feasibility of using a lysine decarboxylase (LdcC) from Escherichia coli for high-level productio...
We conducted 2 experiments to determine lysine loss from 2 lipid-coated lysine products after mixing with silage. In our first experiment, we mixed 2 lipid-coated lysine products, crystalline lysine o...
Lysine acetylation has emerged as a key post-translational modification found at many sites throughout the cell. It plays an important role in epigenetic processes, and more generally in the regulatio...
Previous studies have indicated the presence of defined interactions between oligo or poly(ethylene glycol) (OEG or PEG) and lysine residues. In these interactions, the OEG or PEG residues 'wrap aroun...
Lysine is the first limiting amino acid in cereal proteins and is found mainly in animal-derived products. Current Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) recommendations extrapolate lysine requirements during...
The purpose of this study is to establish the parenteral lysine requirements for neonates.
This sub-study aims to assess the effect and breakdown of lysine administration, specifically examining whether it leads to increased plasma 2-AAA in healthy humans.
The objective of the present study was to investigate the possibility of using L-lysine, an amino acid that occurs naturally in food and which interferes with nitric oxide (NO) production,...
Splanchnic uptake and metabolism contributes significantly to the differences in flux seen between the intravenous and intragastric ingestion of certain indispensable amino acids. This is...
RATIONALE: L-lysine may lessen the severity of oral mucositis, or mouth sores in patients receiving radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy for head and neck cancer. PURPOSE: This...
An enzyme that activates lysine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 220.127.116.11.
A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of amino group of L-LYSINE onto 2-oxoglutarate to generate 2-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde and L-GLUTAMATE.
A metallocarboxypeptidase that removes C-terminal basic amino acid from peptides and proteins, with preference shown for lysine over arginine. It is a plasma zinc enzyme that inactivates bradykinin and anaphylatoxins.
An enzyme that catalyzes the methylation of the epsilon-amino group of lysine residues in proteins to yield epsilon mono-, di-, and trimethyllysine. EC 18.104.22.168.
A histone-lysine N-methyltransferase and catalytic subunit of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2. It methylates LYSINE 9 (H3K9me) and LYSINE 27 (H3K27me) of HISTONE H3, leading to transcriptional repression of the affected target gene. EZH2 also methylates non-histone proteins such as GATA4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and the nuclear receptor RORA. It regulates CIRCADIAN CLOCKS via histone methylation at the PROMOTER REGIONS of the circadian genes and its repressive activity is also important for the identity and differentiation of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.
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Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...