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Pathological calcification in human urinary tract (kidney stones) is a common problem affecting an increasing number of people around the world. Analysis of such minerals or compounds is of fundamental importance for understanding their etiology and for the development of prophylactic measures. In the present study, structural characterization, phase quantification and morphological behaviour of thirty three (33) human kidney stones from eastern India have been carried out using IR spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Quantitative phase composition of kidney stones has been analyzed following the Rietveld method. Based on the quantitative estimates of constituent phases, the calculi samples have been classified into oxalate (OX), uric acid (UA), phosphate (PH) and mixed (MX) groups. Rietveld analysis of PXRD patterns showed that twelve (36%) of the renal calculi were composed exclusively of whewellite (calcium oxalate monohydrate, COM). The remaining twenty one (64%) stones were mixture of phases with oxalate as the major constituent in fourteen (67%) of these stones. The average crystallite size of whewellite in oxalate stones, as determined from the PXRD analysis, varies between 93 (1) nm and 202 (3) nm, whereas the corresponding sizes for the uric acid and struvite crystallites in UA and PH stones are 79 (1)-155 (4) nm and 69 (1)-123(1) nm, respectively. The size of hydroxyapatite crystallites, 10 (1)-21 (1) nm, is smaller by about one order of magnitude compared to other minerals in the kidney stones. A statistical analysis using fifty (50) kidney stones (33 calculi from the present study and 17 calculi reported earlier from our laboratory) revealed that the oxalate group (whewellite, weddellite or mixture of whewellite and weddellite as the major constituent) is the most prevalent (82%) kidney stone type in eastern India.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Spectrochimica acta. Part A, Molecular and biomolecular spectroscopy
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