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The pre-implantation period is prone to embryonic losses in bovine. Embryo-maternal communication is crucial to support embryo development. Thereby, factors of the uterine fluid (UF) are of specific importance. The maternal diet can affect the UF composition. Since omega 3 fatty acids (omega 3 FA) are considered to be beneficial for reproduction, we investigated if dietary omega 3 FA affected factors in the UF related to embryo elongation. Angus heifers (n = 37) were supplemented with either 450 g of rumen-protected fish oil (omega 3 FA) or sunflower oil (omega 6 FA) for a period of 8 weeks. Following cycle synchronization and artificial insemination, the uteri were flushed post mortem to recover the embryos on day 15 of pregnancy. The UF as well as tissue samples of endometrium and corpus luteum (CL) were collected. Strikingly, the embryo elongation in the omega 3 group was enhanced compared to the omega 6 group. No differences were observed in uterine prostaglandins, even though the endometrial concentration of their precursor arachidonic acid was reduced in omega 3 compared to omega 6 heifers. The dietary FA neither led to differential expression of target genes in endometrium nor CL nor to a differential abundance of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, cortisol or amino acids in the UF. Interestingly, the omega 3 group displayed a higher plasma progesterone concentration during luteal growth than the omega 6 group, possibly promoting embryo elongation. Further research should include an ovarian perspective to understand the functional link between dietary omega 3 FA and reproductive outcome.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Biology of reproduction
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An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A 20-carbon branched chain fatty acid. In phytanic acid storage disease (REFSUM DISEASE) this lipid may comprise as much as 30% of the total fatty acids of the plasma. This is due to a phytanic acid alpha-hydroxylase deficiency.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a single fatty acid ester bond in lysoglycerophosphatidates with the formation of glyceryl phosphatidates and a fatty acid. EC 220.127.116.11.
The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.
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