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In this paper we introduce a new likelihood ratio method for evaluating mixed Y-STR profiles that is based on the premise that, given a haplotype has been seen in the person of interest, the most likely source of a second haplotype, matching at all or most loci, is in an individual with a recent common ancestor. We have called the new method the "Haplotype centred" (HC) method for likelihood ratio derivation. For single source, unambiguous haplotypes the HC method performs identically with the Kappa method proposed by Brenner. When attention is turned to mixtures we are required to assign a probability to many haplotypes seen neither in the database nor any person typed in the case. We derive a likelihood ratio formula in a way that allows a locus by locus approach. We demonstrate the application of the HC method on a series of Y-STR mixtures, originating from two to four individuals, in a manner that is still calculated locus-by-locus in nature.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Forensic science international. Genetics
Recently, a debate has arisen around the number of contributors postulated in hypotheses for the purpose of weight of evidence calculations on DNA mixture profiles. Specifically the issue at stake is ...
To determine profiles of urban runners based on socio-demographic, health, motivational, training characteristics and running-related beliefs and behaviours.
Contact dermatitis (CD) is a frequently occurring medical condition, for which (VM) is one of the recommended homeopathic medicines. However, the symptoms indicating this medicine have not yet bee...
Though previous study indicated that the 580 nm-yellow-LED-light showed an stimulating effect on growth of chickens, the low luminous efficiency of the yellow LED light cannot reflect the advantage ...
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To compare serum ketone body (i.e., total ketones, β hydroxybutyrate, and estimate of acetoacetate) levels after single dose administration of AC-1204 mixed in water, AC-1202 mixed in wat...
This is an observational study using Bronchial-alveolar lavage (BAL) as specimen for GeneXpert, a real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for detection of tuberculosis (TB). Patient...
In a randomized, cross-over designed study, the investigators examined the effectiveness of the carbohydrate counting method after consumption of mixed meals typical of the Greek cuisine w...
This is a case control observational study using Bronchial-alveolar lavage (BAL) as specimen for GeneXpert, a real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for detection of tuberculosis (...
This study examines whether the injection of local anesthesia mixed with sodium bicarbonate in the ratio of 3:1 creates a less burning sensation and is as effective regarding the anestheti...
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
A type of defective gonadal development in patients with a wide spectrum of chromosomal mosaic variants. Their karyotypes are of partial sex chromosome monosomy resulting from an absence or an abnormal second sex chromosome (X or Y). Karyotypes include 45,X/46,XX; 45,X/46,XX/47,XXX; 46,XXp-; 45,X/46,XY; 45,X/47,XYY; 46,XYpi; etc. The spectrum of phenotypes may range from phenotypic female through pseudohermaphrodite to phenotypic male, depending on the ratio in each gonad of 45,X primordial germ cells to those with normal 46,XX or 46,XY constitution.
Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
Ratio of output to effort, or the ratio of effort produced to energy expended.
The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)