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The aim of this study was to assess the levels of 13 essential and toxic elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, V, Zn) in the infant formulas, available on Polish market. Selected food samples were of animal (cow- and goat-based milks) and plant (soy-based milk, hypoallergic products, grain porridges) origin. Two analytical techniques, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA), have been complementarily applied to analyze elemental content of 16 formulas dedicated for infants between 0 and 8 months. For arsenic determinations, the radiochemical mode of NAA was also used. The daily intake of some micronutrients in the age 0-8 months for non-breastfed infants was estimated and compared with present safety limits. Certified reference materials (CRMs) have been used for the validation of the methods: Non-fat Milk Powder 1549 (National Bureau of Standards-NBS), Soya Bean Flour INCT-SBF-4 (Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology-INCT), Rice Flour SRM 1568b (National Institute of Standards and Technology-NIST).
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Biological trace element research
In the present study, the presence of a wide spectrum of major and trace elements (As, Ag, Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Sr, Sb, Se, Sn, Pb, V, and Zn), fatty acids, as well as some pollutants l...
Thirty-five atmospheric precipitation samples were collected at an urban site in Qingdao from June 2016 to May 2017. The total and soluble concentrations of eight trace elements in the samples were de...
Detailed mineral profile of a selection of commercially available complete dry dog foods was determined using ICP-MS (Se, Cu, Mn and non-essential trace elements) flame photometry (Na and K), atomic a...
Infant formulas are produced to resemble human milk (HM) and to provide adequate energy and appropriate nutritional components for suitability of infant growth and development, some of which are custo...
This study was conducted to compare the essential and toxic element content of seven veal cuts: shoulder clod (SC), inside round (IR), eye of round (ER), bottom round (BR), heel of round (HR), knuckle...
From birth to 5 months, milk is the essential and unique food of the newborn. The French National Nutrition Program (PNNS) recommends exclusive breastfeeding "up to 6 months and at least 4...
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) affects millions of people in the United States; each year, more people die from CVD than from any other disease. There are many dietary and lifestyle factors ...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate hair trace elements and toxic metals and plasma total antioxidant activity in children with recurrent wheezing and to evaluate whether these toxic ...
The objective of the study is to assess comparative gastrointestinal tolerance of normal term infants to various milk-protein infant formulas.
An evaluation of a preterm infant formula containing ingredients similar to those found in breastmilk
A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.
Spectrophotometric techniques in which the samples are examined in the form of atoms based on their unique energy levels for ELECTRONS. They are used to analyze TRACE ELEMENTS, such as ALUMINUM; ARSENIC; BERYLLIUM; CALCIUM; COPPER; IRON; LEAD; and LITHIUM.
A method of simultaneously imaging and measuring elements at the submicron level. Nuclear microscopy uses a focused high-energy ion beam of PROTONS and ALPHA PARTICLES (a nuclear microprobe) to interact with the sample. The resulting emitted radiations are analyzed by a group of techniques simultaneously: PARTICLE INDUCED X RAY EMISSION SPECTROMETRY for minor and trace element identification; Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy to assess sample thickness and bulk elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy to assess sample structure and density.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells (in animals) – such as nutrients and oxygen – and transports waste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates, it is composed of blo...