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A growing body of evidence supports a bidirectional relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and sleep disturbances. Fragmented sleep induced by sleep-related breathing disorders, insomnia, and nightmares impacts recovery and treatment outcomes and worsens PTSD symptoms. Despite recent attention, management of these disorders has been unrewarding in the setting of PTSD. This review summarizes the evidence for empirically supported treatments of these sleep ailments as it relates to PTSD including psychotherapeutic and pharmacologic interventions. Recent advances in positive airway pressure technology have made treatment of OSA more acceptable however adherence to CPAP represents a significant challenge. The presence of concomitant insomnia, which engenders psychiatric and medical conditions including depression, suicide, alcohol and substance abuse, can be managed with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Hypnotic agents are considered an alternative therapy but concerns about adverse events and lack of high level evidence supporting their efficacy in PTSD have limited their use to resistant cases or as adjunct to behavioral therapy when the response is less than desirable. Intrusion of nightmares can complicate PTSD treatment and exert serious strain on social, occupational and marital relations. Image rehearsal therapy has shown significant reduction in nightmares intensity and frequency. The success of noradrenergic blocking agents has not been consistent among studies with half reporting treatment failure. An integrated stepped care approach that includes components of both behavioral and pharmacologic interventions customized to patients sleep maladaptive behaviors may offer a solution to delivering accessible, effective, and efficient services for individuals with PTSD.
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An exaggerated acoustic startle reflex (ASR) is a clinical indicator of anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Given the prevalence of PTSD following traumatic brain injury ...
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated to recurrent, obsessive recollection of severe traumatic events. This condition is still not completely understood. Elective treatment of PTSD is ps...
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with significant personal and societal burden. The present study examines the gender-specific differences in this burden in terms of the co-occurren...
Victims of violent crime are at elevated risk of developing acute stress disorder (ASD) as well as subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), both of which are linked to severe psychological di...
The purpose of this study is to obtain data investigating the safety and efficacy of eszopiclone for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related sleep disturbance and th...
The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of two cognitive behavioral group psychotherapy interventions in controlling the subjective sleep disturbance in veterans with Pos...
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has traditionally been attributed only to a collapsible upper airway. However, it is increasingly recognized that multiple additional non-anatomical mechanism...
The overall goal of this study is to examine if acupuncture intervention can reduce the onset of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and affective and cognitive complaints among mild tr...
The purpose of this study is to examine if group ear acupuncture improves Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder sleep difficulties among veterans who participated in Operations Enduring Freedom a...
A class of traumatic stress disorders that is characterized by the significant dissociative states seen immediately after overwhelming trauma. By definition it cannot last longer than 1 month, if it persists, a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (STRESS DISORDERS, POST-TRAUMATIC) is more appropriate.
Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.
Anxiety disorders manifested by the development of characteristic symptoms following a psychologically traumatic event that is outside the normal range of usual human experience. Symptoms include re-experiencing the traumatic event, increased arousal, and numbing of responsiveness to or reduced involvement with the external world. Traumatic stress disorders can be further classified by the time of onset and the duration of these symptoms.
Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Psychiatry is the study of mental disorders and their diagnosis, management and prevention. Conditions include schizophrenia, severe depression and panic disorders among others. There are pharmaceutical treatments as well as other therapies to help...
Anxiety is caused by stress. It is a natural reaction, and is beneficial in helping us deal with tense situations and pressure. It is deterimental when is becomes an excessive, irrational dread of everyday situations. The most common types of anxiety di...
Adhd Anorexia Depression Dyslexia Mental Health Psychiatry Schizophrenia Stress Mental health, although not being as obvious as physical health, is very important, causing great unhappiness to those affected, causing add...