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The treatment objectives for a patient with Cushing's disease (CD) are remission of hypercortisolism, adequate management of co-morbidities, restoration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, preservation of fertility and pituitary function, and improvement of visual defects in cases of macroadenomas with suprasellar extension. Transsphenoidal pituitary surgery is the main treatment option for the majority of cases, even in macroadenomas with low probability of remission. In cases of surgical failure, another subsequent pituitary surgery might be indicated in cases with persistent tumor imaging at post surgical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or pathology analysis of adrenocorticotropic hormone-positive (ACTH+) positive pituitary adenoma in the first procedure. Medical treatment, radiotherapy and adrenalectomy are the other options when transsphenoidal pituitary surgery fails. There are several options of medical treatment, although cabergoline and ketoconazole are the most commonly used alone or in combination. Novel treatments are also addressed in this review. Different therapeutic approaches are frequently needed on an individual basis, both before and, particularly, after surgery, and they should be individualized. The objective of the present review is to provide the necessary information to achieve a more effective treatment for CD. It is recommended that patients with CD be followed at tertiary care centers with experience in treating this condition.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Archives of endocrinology and metabolism
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Review of the medical necessity of hospital or other health facility admissions, upon or within a short time following an admission, and periodic review of services provided during the course of treatment.
The state of society as it exists or in flux. While it usually refers to society as a whole in a specified geographical or political region, it is applicable also to restricted strata of a society.
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