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Sexual transmission is the principal driver of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic. Understanding HIV vaccine-induced immune responses at mucosal surfaces can generate hypotheses regarding mechanisms of protection, and may influence vaccine development. The RV144 (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00223080) efficacy trial showed protection against HIV infections but mucosal samples were not collected, therefore, the contribution of mucosal antibodies to preventing HIV-1 acquisition is unknown. Here, we report the generation, magnitude and persistence of antibody responses to recombinant gp120 envelope and antigens including variable one and two loop scaffold antigens (gp70V1V2) previously shown to correlate with risk in RV144. We evaluated antibody responses to gp120 A244gD and gp70V1V2 92TH023 (both CRF01_AE) and Case A2 (subtype B) in cervico-vaginal mucus (CVM), seminal plasma (SP) and rectal secretions (RS) from HIV-uninfected RV144 vaccine recipients, who were randomized to receive two late boosts of ALVAC-HIV/AIDSVAX®B/E, AIDSVAX®B/E, or ALVAC-HIV alone at 0 and 6 months. Late vaccine boosting increased IgG geometric mean titers (GMT) to gp120 A244gD in AIDSVAX®B/E and ALVAC-HIV/AIDSVAX®B/E CVM (28 and 17 fold, respectively), followed by SP and RS. IgG to gp70V1V2 92TH023 increased in AIDSVAX®B/E and ALVAC-HIV/AIDSVAX®B/E CVM (11-17 fold) and SP (2 fold) two weeks post first boost. IgG to Case A2 was only detected in AIDSVAX®B/E and ALVAC-HIV/AIDSVAX®B/E CVM. Mucosal IgG to gp120 A244gD (CVM, SP, RS), gp70V1V2 92TH023 (CVM, SP), and Case A2 (CVM) correlated with plasma IgG levels (p<0.001). Although the magnitude of IgG responses declined after boosting, anti-gp120 A244gD IgG responses in CVM persisted for 12 months post final vaccination. Further studies in localization, persistence and magnitude of envelope specific antibodies (IgG and dimeric IgA) in anogenital secretions will help determine their role in preventing mucosal HIV acquisition.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
Tyrosine sulfation is a crucial post-translational modification for certain anti-HIV antibodies that neutralize HIV. One of the most neutralizing sulfated anti-HIV antibodies, E51, contains a region i...
Antibodies that bind residue K169 in the V2 region of the HIV-1 envelope correlated with reduced risk of infection in the RV144 vaccine trial but were restricted to two ED-motif-encoding light chain g...
Antibody Fc effector functions contribute to HIV control and have been implicated in the partial efficacy seen in the RV144 vaccine trial. Fc-mediated trogocytosis has been previously described for an...
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EV07 is an open label phase I clinical trial to evaluate the effect of late boost on HIV-uninfected vaccinees from EV06 trial. The outcome of the EV06 trial has shown that the vaccine reg...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the long-term persistence of binding antibody responses against V1V2 and gp120 in subjects who were vaccinated with the envelope glycoprotein 120 (...
A Phase I Study of the Safety and Immunogenicity of rgp120/HIV-1IIIB Vaccine in Healthy Adult Subjects (NOTE: Study Extended ONLY for Subjects Who Have Previously Received rgp120/HIV-1IIIB or rgp120/HIV-1MN on VEU 006 or VEU 006 Rollover Study)
AMENDED 11/17/93: To determine whether the pattern of response to MN rgp120 vaccine is altered by pre-exposure to IIIB rgp120. ORIGINAL DESIGN: To evaluate the safety (clinical and immuno...
To determine the safety and pharmacokinetics of F105 human monoclonal antibody both following a single dose and during intermittent administration in HIV-infected patients. To determine sp...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the breadth and potency of HIV-1 neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses and examine the safety and tolerability of an HIV gp120 protein vaccine (AID...
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
A synthetic methylprostaglandin E1 analog that reduces gastric acid secretion and enhances the gastric mucus-bicarbonate barrier. It is effective in the therapy of gastric ulcers and gives significant protection against NSAID-induced gastric mucosal damage. The drug also prevents cyclosporin A-induced damage to endocrine and exocrine pancreatic secretions. It shows a low order of acute toxicity and there is no evidence of embryotoxicity, fetotoxicity, teratogenicity, or mutagenicity in animal studies.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.
An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples of antigens include microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produc...
A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one ...