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Endosulfan, an organochloride pesticide, has been used for many commercial purposes. Endosulfan is composed of two isomers, α-endosulfan and β-endosulfan. In biological and soil systems, endosulfan is metabolized into endosulfan sulfate. In this study, the different toxicological effects of α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, and endosulfan sulfate on the livers and kidneys of mice were comprehensively investigated. The results demonstrated that both endosulfan isomers and endosulfan sulfate disturbed the hepatic and renal antioxidant systems. Furthermore, H NMR metabolomics analysis revealed that endogenous metabolites involved in oxidative stress and energy metabolism were altered after exposure to these compounds. In the liver, the changes in hepatic endogenous metabolites and the induction of hepatic CYP450 mRNA isoforms were similar among mice treated with the three compounds, and the sulfate metabolite was the exclusive exogenous compound detected. Therefore, the metabolism of α- and β-endosulfan to endosulfan sulfate is likely the main cause of toxicological effects in the livers of mice. However, in kidneys, the changes in the metabolome and in CYP450 mRNA expression induced by α-endosulfan and β-endosulfan were stereoselective. Additionally, endosulfan sulfate, which induced a significant increase of renal Cyp3a11, showed a more robust disturbance of renal metabolites than either of the two isomers. These findings revealed that more attention should be given to the toxicological evaluation of endosulfan sulfate in the future.
This article was published in the following journal.
Soil, air, tree bark, rice, wheat, invertebrates, and chicken tissues around a typical endosulfan-contaminated site were analyzed in each season in each of two years. The total endosulfan (the sum of ...
To establish an analytical method of the endosulfan concentrations （α-endosulfan and β-endosulfan） in biological samples by GC-MS/MS. To observe the distribution of endosulfan in aquatic animals...
Concentrations of 7 different polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and eleven organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and metabolites, including DDTs (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), HCHs (hexachloroc...
This study evaluated the in vitro effect of three concentrations of atrazine, chlorpyrifos and endosulfan on the growth parameters of four non-toxigenic Aspergillus section Flavi strains. The ability ...
In the present work, a structure-based design approach was used for the generation of a novel variant of synthetic glutathione transferase (PvGmGSTU) with higher sensitivity towards pesticides. Molecu...
The purpose of the study is to examine whether Klacid® (Clarithromycin) will induce oxidative stress (stress from oxygen) in healthy subjects. This is done by measuring the content of a p...
High inspiratory oxygen fractions are known to induce oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. The degrading products of oxidative stress induced lipid peroxidation are in part volatile an...
The role of oxidative stress in disease pathology is increasingly recognized. At present, the development of biomarkers of this state is in its infancy and the availability of clinically v...
Given preliminary data in animal (proprietary data) have shown that XXS (a mixture of natural polyphenolic extracts of edible plants) has a significant and favourable effect on oxidative s...
The purpose of this study is investigate to the effect(s) of chronic occupational exposure to N20 and volatile anesthetics on the extent of oxidative stress (DNA damage and the generation ...
A polychlorinated compound used for controlling a variety of insects. It is practically water-insoluble, but readily adheres to clay particles and persists in soil and water for several years. Its mode of action involves repetitive nerve-discharges positively correlated to increase in temperature. This compound is extremely toxic to most fish. (From Comp Biochem Physiol (C) 1993 Jul;105(3):347-61)
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
The appearance of carbonyl groups (such as aldehyde or ketone groups) in PROTEINS as the result of several oxidative modification reactions. It is a standard marker for OXIDATIVE STRESS. Carbonylated proteins tend to be more hydrophobic and resistant to proteolysis.
Stress is caused by your perception of situations around you and then the reaction of your body to them. The automatic stress response to unexpected events is known as 'fight or flight'. Discovered by Walter Cannon in 1932, it is the release of h...
Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Some biological therapies for cancer use vaccines or bacteria to stimulate the body&rs...
Hepatology is the study of liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas, and diseases associated with them. This includes viral hepatitis, alcohol damage, cirrhosis and cancer. As modern lifestyles change, with alcoholism and cancer becoming more promi...