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In aquaculture, animals can be continually exposed to environmental stress factors that put their health and even survival at risk. Two experiments were performed to evaluate the impact of different stress conditions (acute crowding and anaesthetic) on the natural haemolytic complement activity in serum and skin mucus of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.). In the first experiment, fish were subjected to 10 kg m (low density, control group) and 50 kg m (high density, crowding group) during 2, 24 and 48 h. In the second experiment, fish were unexposed (control) or exposed to 40 ppm of MS-222 or 5 ppm or 10 ppm of clove oil for 1 h. In fish maintained in acute crowding conditions only an increase of the haemolytic complement activity was observed in the skin mucus after 24 h of exposure. However, a similar statistically significant increase was observed in serum and skin mucus of fish exposed for 1 h to the lowest concentration of clove oil (5 ppm) tested. The results point to a new and alternative way to assess stress in farmed fish by using skin mucus instead of blood serum and confirm that the measurement of natural haemolytic complement activity serves as an indicator of stress in fish.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Fish & shellfish immunology
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The smaller fragment formed when complement C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. It is an anaphylatoxin that causes symptoms of immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE) but its activity is weaker than that of COMPLEMENT C3A or COMPLEMENT C5A.
Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.
Complement activation initiated by the binding of COMPLEMENT C1 to ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES at the COMPLEMENT C1Q subunit. This leads to the sequential activation of COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S subunits. Activated C1s cleaves COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 forming the membrane-bound classical C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
A serine protease that cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT 3 into COMPLEMENT 3A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT 3B in the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It is a complex of COMPLEMENT 4B and COMPLEMENT 2A (C4b2a).
A serine protease that is the complex of COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT FACTOR BB. It cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT C3B in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY.
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