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Cytarabine is a conventionally used chemotherapeutic agent for treating acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, chemoresistance, toxic side-effects and poor patient survival rates retard the efficacy of its performance. The current study deals with the chemosensitization of AML cells using heteronemin, a marine natural product towards cytarabine chemotherapy. Heteronemin could effectively sensitize HL-60 cells towards sub-toxic concentration of cytarabine resulting in synergistic toxicity as demonstrated by MTT assay and [H] thymidine incorporation studies, while being safe towards healthy blood cells. Flow cytometry for Annexin-V/PI and immunoblotting for caspase cleavage proved that the combination induces enhancement in apoptosis. Heteronemin being a farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI) suppressed cytarabine-induced, farnesyl transferase-mediated activation of Ras, as assessed by Ras pull-down assay. Upon pre-treating cells with a commercial FTI, L-744,832, the synergism was completely lost in the combination, confirming the farnesyl transferase inhibitory activity of heteronemin as assessed by thymidine incorporation assay. Heteronemin effectively down-regulated cytarabine-induced activation of MAPK, AP-1, NF-κB and c-myc, the down-stream targets of Ras signaling, which again validated the role of Ras in regulating the synergism. Hence we believe that the efficacy of cytarabine chemotherapy can be improved to a significant extent by combining sub-toxic concentrations of cytarabine and heteronemin.
This article was published in the following journal.
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A pediatric acute myeloid leukemia involving both myeloid and monocytoid precursors. At least 20% of non-erythroid cells are of monocytic origin.
A rare acute myeloid leukemia characterized by abnormal EOSINOPHILS in the bone marrow.
An acute myeloid leukemia in which abnormal PROMYELOCYTES predominate. It is frequently associated with DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION.
An acute leukemia exhibiting cell features characteristic of both the myeloid and lymphoid lineages and probably arising from MULTIPOTENT STEM CELLS.
Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.