Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Phenotypic polymorphism in cryptic species is widespread. This may evolve in response to search image use by predators exerting negative frequency-dependent selection on intraspecific colour morphs, "apostatic selection". Evidence exists to indicate search image formation by predators and apostatic selection operating on wild prey populations, though not to demonstrate search image use directly resulting in apostatic selection. The present study attempted to address this deficiency, using British Lepidoptera active in winter as a model system. It has been proposed that the typically polymorphic wing colouration of these species represents an anti-search image adaptation against birds. To test (a) for search image driven apostatic selection, dimorphic populations of artificial moth-like models were established in woodland at varying relative morph frequencies and exposed to predation by natural populations of birds. In addition, to test (b) whether abundance and degree of polymorphism are correlated across British winter-active moths, as predicted where search image use drives apostatic selection, a series of phylogenetic comparative analyses were conducted. There was a positive relationship between artificial morph frequency and probability of predation, consistent with birds utilising search images and exerting apostatic selection. Abundance and degree of polymorphism were found to be positively correlated across British Lepidoptera active in winter, though not across all taxonomic groups analysed. This evidence is consistent with polymorphism in this group having evolved in response to search image driven apostatic selection and supports the viability of this mechanism as a means by which phenotypic and genetic variation may be maintained in natural populations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of evolutionary biology
A major challenge in evolutionary biology consists of understanding how genetic and phenotypic variation is created and maintained. In the present study, we investigated the origin(s) and evolutionary...
1.Phenotypic variation provides the framework for natural selection to work upon, enabling adaptive evolution. One of the most discernible manifestations of phenotypic variability is colour variation....
Individuals with grapheme-colour synaesthesia experience anomalous colours when reading achromatic text. These unusual experiences have been said to resemble 'normal' colour perception or colour image...
Mitotic and meiotic chromosomes from 2 taxa of the genus Melinaea, M. satevis cydon and M. "satevis" tarapotensis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), and from hybrids produced in captivity were obtained using...
The objectives of this paper are to explore the impact of immune response on within-host viral evolution towards higher Darwinian fitness and, in particular, to verify a hypothesis that immune respons...
This study investigates cold-induced brown fat activation in winter swimmers and not-winter swimmers by skin temperature measures assessed with infra red thermography imaging and iButtons....
This study investigates repetitive cold-water exposure on brown fat activity assessed by infrared thermography imagine. Furthermore we will assess glucose control upon winter-swimming. Obe...
The winter break within the German Professional Football Leagues will be shortened as for the season 2009/2010 from 6.5 to 3.5 weeks. That might have repercussions on injury incidence in e...
To measure colour vision in patients with a blue light filtering lens implant in one eye and non-tinted implant in the other eye (and compared this group with a control group with bilatera...
Twenty patients of Dental Medicine School will be recruited to participate in a pilot study about dental colour measurement in which visual and digital instruments will be tested. Informe...
The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.
A British overseas territory, part of the British West Indies, lying about 60 miles east of Puerto Rico. Tortola is the main island, other islands include Virgin Gorda, Jost Van Dyke and Anegada.
Evolution at the molecular level of DNA sequences and proteins. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
The techniques used to produce molecules exhibiting properties that conform to the demands of the experimenter. These techniques combine methods of generating structural changes with methods of selection. They are also used to examine proposed mechanisms of evolution under in vitro selection conditions.