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It is thought that mineralized refuse could be excavated from almost-full landfill sites to provide space for the increasing burden of municipal solid waste. When excavating, however, the HS emissions from the mineralized waste need to be considered carefully. In an attempt to understand how HS emissions might change during this excavation process, we carried out a series of tests, including exposing anaerobic mineralized refuse to oxygen, isolating and determining possible functional bacteria, and characterizing the electron donors and/or acceptors. The results showed that HS would be released when landfill mineralized refuse was exposed to oxygen (O), and could reach concentrations of 6 mg m, which was 3 times the concentrations of HS released from anaerobic mineralized refuse. Sulfur-metabolized microorganisms accounted for only 0.5% of the microbial functional bacteria (MFB) derived from the mineralized refuse when exposed to O for 60 days, and SRB were not present. The MFB maintained HS production by aerobic sulfate reduction using SO and SO as electron acceptors, and sulfate-reducing rates of 16% and 55%, respectively, were achieved. Lactate and SO were the preferred electron donor and acceptor, respectively. By enhancing the carbon source and electron transfer, MFB may undergo strong aerobic sulfate reduction even at low abundances of sulfur-metabolized microorganisms.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Science of the total environment
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3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate. Key intermediate in the formation by living cells of sulfate esters of phenols, alcohols, steroids, sulfated polysaccharides, and simple esters, such as choline sulfate. It is formed from sulfate ion and ATP in a two-step process. This compound also is an important step in the process of sulfur fixation in plants and microorganisms.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that oxidizes nitrites to nitrates. Its organisms occur in aerobic environments where organic matter is being mineralized, including soil, fresh water, and sea water.
An enzyme that catalyzes the activation of sulfate ions by ATP to form adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate and pyrophosphate. This reaction constitutes the first enzymatic step in sulfate utilization following the uptake of sulfate. EC 188.8.131.52.
An arylsulfatase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the 4-sulfate groups of the N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 4-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate. A deficiency of this enzyme is responsible for the inherited lysosomal disease, Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome (MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS VI). EC 184.108.40.206.