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Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) is the etiological agent of spring viremia of carp (SVC) and causes mass mortality in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Currently, no effective treatments or commercial vaccines against SVCV are available. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of heme to produce carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin and ferrous iron (Fe2+), exerts anti-oxidant, antiinflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. Previous studies demonstrated that nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) functions as an important upstream regulator of HO-1 and exhibits robust activity against SVCV infection. In this study, we further examined the antiviral activity of HO-1 against SVCV infection. The elevated expression of HO-1 was induced upon cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) treatment in EPC cells without affecting cell viability and thus inhibited SVCV replication in a dose dependent manner. Knocking down of HO-1 rescued SVCV replication. Thereby, the antiviral activity of ROS/Nrf2/HO-1 axis was confirmed in EPC cells. Furthermore, HO-1 enzymatic products CO, but not biliverdin, markedly inhibited SVCV replication via the activation of cyclic GMP/protein kinase G signaling pathway. Collectively, these findings suggest potential drug or therapy that induced the Nrf2/HO-1/CO/cGMP/PKG signaling pathway as a promising strategy for treating SVC.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Fish & shellfish immunology
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Common name for a number of different species of fish in the family Cyprinidae. This includes, among others, the common carp, crucian carp, grass carp, and silver carp.
A ubiquitous stress-responsive enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of HEME to yield IRON; CARBON MONOXIDE; and BILIVERDIN.
A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC 22.214.171.124.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS producing tumors in primates. Originally isolated from a fibrosarcoma in a woolly monkey, WMSV is a replication-defective v-onc virus which carries the sis oncogene. In order to propagate, WMSV requires a replication-competent helper virus.
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Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (i.e., increase the rates of) chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. Almost all chemical re...
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