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In comparison to other arachnids, ticks are major vectors of disease, but less than 8% of the known species are capable of inducing paralysis, as compared to the ~99⁻100% arachnids that belong to venomous classes. When considering the potential monophyly of venomous Arachnida, this review reflects on the implications regarding the classification of ticks as venomous animals and the possible origin of toxins. The origin of tick toxins is compared with scorpion and spider toxins and venoms based on their significance, functionality, and structure in the search to find homologous venomous characters. Phenotypic evaluation of paralysis, as caused by different ticks, demonstrated the need for expansion on existing molecular data of pure isolated tick toxins because of differences and discrepancies in available data. The use of in-vivo, in-vitro, and in-silico assays for the purification and characterization of paralysis toxins were critically considered, in view of what may be considered to be a paralysis toxin. Purified toxins should exhibit physiologically relevant activity to distinguish them from other tick-derived proteins. A reductionist approach to identify defined tick proteins will remain as paramount in the search for defined anti-paralysis vaccines.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Veterinary sciences
ticks are important vectors in the transmission of human disease. In endemic areas, infection with multiple tick-borne diseases may occur. In part 3 of this review, identification and management of co...
To investigate the etiology and clinical characteristics of vocal fold paralysis in children. To provide useful information for diagnosis, management and prognosis in the clinical work. Two hundred a...
Bites with tick-borne pathogens can cause various bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases in humans. Tick-transmitted diseases are known as contributing factors to the increasing incidence and burden ...
A healthy 41 year old man was bitten by a tick while on safari in the Kruger National Park in South Africa. He developed severe fever and malaise 5 days later. A characteristic red skin sore with a...
Facial nerve paralysis is a disfiguring complication which occurs in 7-10 % of temporal bone fractures. The onset of paralysis may be immediate, delayed or undetermined, the latter of whi...
The purpose of this study is to compare Dichlorphenamide with placebo (an inactive substance) for prevention of episodes and for improvement of strength in periodic paralysis. This study ...
Currently, physicians have several options in addressing the anatomic and physiologic sequela of facial paralysis. However, strategies to address the psychologic and coping ability for pat...
OBJECTIVES: I. Assess the efficacy of dichlorphenamide in the treatment of episodic weakness attacks in patients with hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, paramyotonia congenita with periodi...
Lyme and other tick-borne diseases pose a significant health threat to outdoor workers. This study is a double-blind randomized controlled trial of outdoor workers in Rhode Island and the ...
Paralysis caused by a neurotropic toxin secreted by the salivary glands of ticks.
Toxicoses caused by toxic substances secreted by the salivary glands of ticks; include tick paralysis (neurotropic toxin), sweating sickness (dermotropic toxin), and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus toxicosis (leukotropic toxin).
Chemical, biological, or medical measures designed to prevent the spread of ticks or the concomitant infestations which result in tick-borne diseases. It includes the veterinary as well as the public health aspects of tick and mite control.
A febrile illness characterized by chills, aches, vomiting, leukopenia, and sometimes encephalitis. It is caused by the COLORADO TICK FEVER VIRUS, a reovirus transmitted by the tick Dermacentor andersoni.
A genus of tick-borne protozoa parasitic in the lymphocytes, erythrocytes, and endothelial cells of mammals. Its organisms multiply asexually and then invade erythrocytes, where they undergo no further reproduction until ingested by a transmitting tick.
Immunoassay - ELISA
Immunoassays are quick and accurate tests to detect specific molecules. Immunoassays rely on an antibody to bind to the specific structure of a molecule. Antibodies are proteins generated by animals in response to the invasion of a foreign molecule (anti...