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We investigated whether rapamycin-insensitive mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling plays a role in regulating resistance exercise-induced muscle protein synthesis. We used a rodent model of resistance exercise and compared the effect of rapamycin, an allosteric mTOR inhibitor, with the effect of AZD8055, an ATP-competitive mTOR kinase inhibitor. The right gastrocnemius muscle of male Sprague-Dawley rats age 11 wk was contracted isometrically via percutaneous electrical stimulation (100 Hz, 5 sets of ten 3-s contractions, 7 s of rest between contractions, 3 min of rest between sets), and the left gastrocnemius muscle served as control. Vehicle, rapamycin, or AZD8055 were intraperitoneally injected 1 h before resistance exercise. Results indicated that both rapamycin and AZD8055 inhibited mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1)/70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase signaling similarly, whereas mTORC1/eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 signaling was greatly inhibited by AZD8055. Moreover, only AZD8055 inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473, a downstream target of mTORC2. AZD8055, but not rapamycin, completely inhibited the resistance exercise-induced increase in muscle protein synthesis. We conclude that the resistance exercise-induced increase in muscle protein synthesis is an mTOR signaling-dependent process. Furthermore, both rapamycin-sensitive and -insensitive mTOR signaling regulate this event.-Ogasawara, R., Suginohara, T. Rapamycin-insensitive mechanistic target of rapamycin regulates basal and resistance exercise-induced muscle protein synthesis.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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A multiprotein complex consisting of MTOR KINASE; MLST8 PROTEIN; rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR protein (RICTOR PROTEIN); and PRR5 (proline-rich protein 5). Like MTORC1, it also regulates cell growth and proliferation in response to growth factors but may not be as sensitive to nutrient availability and is insensitive to SIROLIMUS. In contrast to MTORC1, it can regulate the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON through RHO GTPASES to promote the formation of STRESS FIBERS. The mTORC2 complex also plays a critical role in AKT1 PROTEIN KINASE phosphorylation and activation.
An adaptor protein component of the MECHANISTIC TARGET OF RAPAMYCIN COMPLEX 1 that forms stoichiometric complexes with TOR KINASES, which it negatively regulates. It functions as a positive regulator of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES.
A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that TACROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.
An adaptor protein, consisting of seven WD REPEATS along its length, that functions as a component of the MECHANISTIC TARGET OF RAPAMYCIN COMPLEX 1 and MTORC2 COMPLEX. It interacts directly with MTOR to enhance its kinase activity and stabilizes the MTOR-RPTOR PROTEIN interaction in nutrient-poor conditions, favoring RPTOR inhibition of MTOR activity.
An adaptor protein subunit of MTORC2 COMPLEX. It functions as a structural component and is phosphorylated by RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, integrating signals for cell growth and proliferation, especially during embryonic development.
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