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In the present era of rapid international globalization and industrialization, intensive use of nitrite as a fertilizing agent in agriculture, preservative, dyeing agent, food additive and as corrosion inhibitor in industrial sectors is adversely effecting environment, natural habitats and human health. The issue of toxicity and carcinogenicity due to excessive ingestion of nitrites via the dietary intake has led to an imminent need for its efficient real-time monitoring in situ. Nitrite detection employing electrochemical biosensors has been gaining high credibility in the field of clinical research. Nitrite biosensors have emerged as an outstanding choice for portable point of care testing of nitrite quantification owing to the excellent properties, such as rapidity, miniaturization, ultra-low limits of detection, multiplexing and enhanced detection sensitivity. The article is enclosed with an interesting outlook on latest emerging trends in the development of nitrite biosensors utilizing nanomaterials, such as metal nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, metal oxide nanoparticles, nanocomposites, polymers and biomaterials. The present review embarks on the highlights relevant to the nitrite quantification in real samples, then proceeds with a meticulous description of the most pertinent electrochemical nitrite biosensors, which have been proposed by adopting diverse materials and strategies of fabrication and finally end with the achievements and future outlook signifying the application of these nanoengineered biosensors for environmental surveillance and human safety.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Critical reviews in analytical chemistry
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An enzyme found primarily in BACTERIA and FUNGI that catalyzes the oxidation of ammonium hydroxide to nitrite. It is an iron-sulfur HEME; FLAVOPROTEIN containing siroheme and can utilize both NAD and NADP as cofactors. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 126.96.36.199.
A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.
A scanning probe microscopy technique that uses an ultramicroelectrode as the scanning probe that simultaneously records changes in electrochemical potential as it scans thereby creating topographical images with localized electrochemical information.
An iron-sulfur and MOLYBDENUM containing FLAVOPROTEIN that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. This enzyme can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors. It is a key enzyme that is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 188.8.131.52.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate in the presence of NADP+. It is a FLAVOPROTEIN that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 184.108.40.206 and should not be confused with the enzyme NITRATE REDUCTASE (NAD(P)H).
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (i.e., increase the rates of) chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. Almost all chemical re...
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...