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Postnatal development includes dramatic changes in gonadal hormones and the many social behaviors they help regulate, both in rodents and humans. Parental care-seeking is the most salient social interaction in neonates and infants, play and pro-social behaviors are commonly studied in juveniles, and the development of aggression and sexual behavior begins in peripubertal stages but continues through late adolescence into adulthood. While parental behaviors are shown after reproductive success in adulthood, alloparenting behaviors are actually high in juveniles as well. These behaviors are sensitive to both early life organizational effects of gonadal hormones and later life activational regulation. However, changes in circulating gonadal hormones and the display of the above behaviors over development differs between rats, mice and humans. These endpoints are of interest to endocrinologist, toxicologists, neuroscientists because of their relevance to mental health disorders and their vulnerability to effects of endocrine disrupting chemical exposure. As such, the goal of this minireview is to succinctly describe and relate the postnatal development of gonadal hormones and social behaviors to each other, over time and across animal models. Ideally, this will help identify appropriate animal models and age ranges for continued study of both normative development and in contexts of environmental disruption.
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Unusual social behaviors have been central to our notions of autism spectrum disorders since their original descriptions. We have come to recognize that such behaviors are broadly distributed beyond t...
Impact of Maternal Perinatal Anxiety on Social-Emotional Development of 2-Year-Olds, A Prospective Study of Norwegian Mothers and Their Offspring : The Impact of Perinatal Anxiety on Child Development.
Introduction Anxiety in women is highly prevalent during pregnancy and in the postnatal period. Anxiety disorders in mothers have been linked to adverse outcomes in their children's development. Howev...
In this review, we describe the sex differences in prevalence, onset, symptom profiles and disease outcome that are evident in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. Women...
Alcohol use initiated early in adolescence is a major predictor for the development of alcohol use disorders. This risk may be increased when drinking is initiated around the time of puberty, given ev...
Arginine vasopressin (AVP) has recently been implicated in juvenile and adolescent social development. How AVP influences social development, however, is not understood. Adolescent homozygous Brattleb...
Ghrelin, an acylated peptide consisting of 28 amino acids, is the endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). It is synthesized predominantly in the stomach but ...
The normal menstrual cycle is produced by a series of hormonal signals that starts with the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is loc...
The purpose of this study is to treat individuals with social anxiety disorder with a Food and Drug Administration-approved medication for the treatment of social anxiety disorder, the ant...
Postnatal depression is a common public health problem which has long-term sequelae on the family and the infant's psychosocial development. Interpersonal psychotherapy has demonstrated it...
The prevalence rate of postnatal depression in Pakistani women and its effect on the growth and development of young children and child mortality is very high (Husain, Bevc et al. 2006, Hu...
In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.
Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).
Complete or partial change from one sex to another with regard to gonadal development. Gonadal sex reversal may occur naturally or be induced by factors such as steroids, temperature, and autosomal abnormalities during the critical period of gonadal differentiation (SEX DIFFERENTIATION) in some species.
Development of SEXUAL MATURATION in boys and girls at a chronological age that is 2.5 standard deviations below the mean age at onset of PUBERTY in the population. This early maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis results in sexual precocity, elevated serum levels of GONADOTROPINS and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES such as ESTRADIOL and TESTOSTERONE.
Hormones produced by the GONADS, including both steroid and peptide hormones. The major steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL and PROGESTERONE from the OVARY, and TESTOSTERONE from the TESTIS. The major peptide hormones include ACTIVINS and INHIBINS.
The World Health Organization (WHO) definition of sexual health; "the state of physical, emotional, mental and social well-being related to sexuality; it is not merely the absence of disease, dysfunction and infirmity. Sexual health requires a posit...
Psychiatry is the study of mental disorders and their diagnosis, management and prevention. Conditions include schizophrenia, severe depression and panic disorders among others. There are pharmaceutical treatments as well as other therapies to help...