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Vast expanses of Earth's surface are covered by ice, with microorganisms in these systems affecting local and global biogeochemical cycles. We examined microbial assemblages from habitats fed by glacial meltwater within the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, and on the west Greenland Ice Sheet, (GrIS) evaluating potential physicochemical factors explaining trends in community structure. Microbial assemblages present in the different Antarctic dry valley habitats were dominated by Sphingobacteria and Flavobacteria, while Gammaproteobacteria and Sphingobacteria prevailed in west GrIS supraglacial environments. Microbial assemblages clustered by location (Canada Glacier, Cotton Glacier, west GrIS) and were separated by habitat type (i.e. ice, cryoconite holes, supraglacial lakes, sediment, and stream water). Community dissimilarities were strongly correlated with dissolved organic matter (DOM) quality. Microbial meltwater assemblages were most closely associated with different protein-like components of the DOM pool. Microbes in environments with mineral particles (i.e. stream sediments, cryoconite holes) were linked to DOM containing more humic-like fluorescence. Our results demonstrate the establishment of distinct microbial communities within ephemeral glacial meltwater habitats, with DOM-microbe interactions playing an integral role in shaping communities on local and polar spatial scales.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: FEMS microbiology ecology
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Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.
The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.
The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)