Effects of Iodized Salt and Iodine Supplements on Prenatal and Postnatal Growth: A Systematic Review.

08:00 EDT 1st May 2018 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Effects of Iodized Salt and Iodine Supplements on Prenatal and Postnatal Growth: A Systematic Review."

Hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency can impair physical development, most visibly in the marked stunting of myxedematous cretinism caused by severe in utero iodine deficiency. Whether iodine repletion improves growth in noncretinous children is uncertain. Therefore, the aim of our systematic review was to assess the effects of iodine fortification or supplementation on prenatal and postnatal growth outcomes in noncretinous children. Following Cochrane methods and PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) reporting guidelines, we searched 10 databases including 2 Chinese databases (latest search February 2017). We included randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials (RCTs; non-RCTs), controlled before-after (CBA) studies, and interrupted time-series studies in pregnant women and children (≤18 y), which compared the effects of iodine (any form, dose, regimen) to placebo, noniodized salt, or no intervention on prenatal and postnatal growth outcomes. We calculated mean differences with 95% CIs, performed random-effects meta-analyses, and assessed the quality of evidence with the use of GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation). We included 18 studies (13 RCTs, 4 non-RCTs, 1 CBA) (n = 5729). Iodine supplementation of severely iodine-deficient pregnant women increased mean birthweight [mean difference (MD): 200 g; 95%
183, 217 g; n = 635; 2 non-RCTs] compared to controls, but the quality of this evidence was assessed as very low. Iodine repletion across the other groups showed no effects on primary growth outcomes (quality of evidence mostly low and very low). Meta-analyses showed a positive effect in moderate-to-mildly iodine-deficient schoolchildren on insulin-like growth factor-1 (
38.48 ng/mL; 95%
6.19, 70.76 ng/mL; n = 498; 2 RCTs, low-quality evidence) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (
0.46 μg/mL; 95%
0.25, 0.66 μg/mL; n = 498; 2 RCTs, low-quality evidence). In conclusion, we identified few well-designed trials examining the effects of iodine repletion on growth. We are uncertain whether prenatal iodine repletion increases infant growth. Postnatal iodine repletion may improve growth factors but has no clear effects on somatic growth. Our systematic review was registered with PROSPERO as CRD42014012940.


Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.)
ISSN: 2156-5376
Pages: 219-237


DeepDyve research library

PubMed Articles [20352 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Development of Databases on Iodine in Foods and Dietary Supplements.

Iodine is an essential micronutrient required for normal growth and neurodevelopment; thus, an adequate intake of iodine is particularly important for pregnant and lactating women, and throughout chil...

Efficacy of educational intervention to improve awareness of the importance of iodine, use of iodized salt, and dietary iodine intake in northeastern Italian schoolchildren.

An educational program was conducted among school-aged children to improve their knowledge about iodine prophylaxis, their iodine status, and their dietary habits.

New Statistical Approach to Apportion Dietary Sources of Iodine Intake: Findings from Kenya, Senegal and India.

Progress of national Universal Salt Iodization (USI) strategies is typically assessed by household coverage of adequately iodized salt and median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in spot urine colle...

Use of Iodine-Containing Dietary Supplements Remains Low among Women of Reproductive Age in the United States: NHANES 2011-2014.

In the United States, the American Thyroid Association recommends that women take a dietary supplement containing 150 µg of iodine 3 months prior to conception and while pregnant and lactating t...

Universal Salt Iodization Provides Sufficient Dietary Iodine to Achieve Adequate Iodine Nutrition during the First 1000 Days: A Cross-Sectional Multicenter Study.

Dietary iodine requirements are high during pregnancy, lactation, and infancy, making women and infants vulnerable to iodine deficiency. Universal salt iodization (USI) has been remarkably successful ...

Clinical Trials [6177 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

A Trial for the Evaluation of the Treatment and Outcome of Hyperthyroidism With Iodized Salt and Non Iodized Salt

To clarify the influence of iodine intake in salt on the incidence and treatment of hyperthyroidism patients, so as to provide theoretical basis for accurate formulation of iodine intake i...

Study of the Effect of Iodized Oil Supplementation During Infancy

In iodine-deficient countries or regions that have inadequate iodized salt distribution, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends choosing one of two methods to improve iodine intake...

Iodine Status in Portuguese Children and the Role of Salt Fortification in School Canteens

It is well known that insufficient iodine intakes impairs the production of thyroid hormones, essential for cognitive development and healthy growth. Although the World Health Organizatio...

Maternal Iodine Supplementation and Effects on Thyroid Function and Child Development

Rationale: In regions of severe endemic goiter, the adverse effects of in utero iodine deficiency on neuromotor development are well established: randomized controlled trials of iodine sup...

RCT of Iodine-containing MNPs vs Oral Iodized Oil to Prevent Iodine Deficiency in Weaning Infants

In this study, two intervention strategies to address iodine deficiency and prevent iodine deficiency disorders in breast-fed weaning infants will be evaluated in a mild to moderate iodine...

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

The mixture contains 38-42% organically combined iodine that is used as a diagnostic aid (radiopaque medium). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

Free-standing facilities that provide prenatal, childbirth, and postnatal care and usually incorporate family-centered maternity care concepts and practices.

Stable iodine atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iodine, but differ in atomic weight. I-127 is the only naturally occurring stable iodine isotope.

The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.

The morphologic and physiological changes of the MUSCLES, bones (BONE AND BONES), and CARTILAGE of the body, i.e., MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, during the prenatal and postnatal stages of development.

Quick Search


DeepDyve research library

Relevant Topics

Thyroid Disorders
The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland in the neck, just above thecollarbone and is an endocrine gland that make hormones. These Thyroid hormones control the rate of many activities in the body, including how fast the body burns calories and how fast th...

Pediatrics is the general medicine of childhood. Because of the developmental processes (psychological and physical) of childhood, the involvement of parents, and the social management of conditions at home and at school, pediatrics is a specialty. With ...

Obstetrics and gynaecology
Fertility Menopause Obstetrics & Gynaecology Osteoporosis Women's Health Obstetrics and gynaecology comprises the care of the pregnant woman, her unborn child and the management of diseases specific to women. Most consultant...

Searches Linking to this Article