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Mechanisms by Which Dietary Fatty Acids Regulate Mitochondrial Structure-Function in Health and Disease.

08:00 EDT 1st May 2018 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Mechanisms by Which Dietary Fatty Acids Regulate Mitochondrial Structure-Function in Health and Disease."

Mitochondria are the energy-producing organelles within a cell. Furthermore, mitochondria have a role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and proper calcium concentrations, building critical components of hormones and other signaling molecules, and controlling apoptosis. Structurally, mitochondria are unique because they have 2 membranes that allow for compartmentalization. The composition and molecular organization of these membranes are crucial to the maintenance and function of mitochondria. In this review, we first present a general overview of mitochondrial membrane biochemistry and biophysics followed by the role of different dietary saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in modulating mitochondrial membrane structure-function. We focus extensively on long-chain n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids and their underlying mechanisms of action. Finally, we discuss implications of understanding molecular mechanisms by which dietary n-3 fatty acids target mitochondrial structure-function in metabolic diseases such as obesity, cardiac-ischemia reperfusion injury, obesity, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and select cancers.

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Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.)
ISSN: 2156-5376
Pages: 247-262

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the hydration of unsaturated fatty acyl-CoA to yield beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA. It plays a role in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis, has broad specificity, and is most active with crotonyl-CoA. EC 4.2.1.17.

FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.

Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS that contain at least one double bond in the trans configuration, which results in a greater bond angle than the cis configuration. This results in a more extended fatty acid chain similar to SATURATED FATTY ACIDS, with closer packing and reduced fluidity. HYDROGENATION of unsaturated fatty acids increases the trans content.

A perilipin that functions in LIPOGENESIS; LIPOLYSIS; and fatty acid oxidation in BROWN ADIPOSE TISSUE; heart, liver, and skeletal muscle. It recruits MITOCHONDRIA to the surface of LIPID DROPLETS where it functions in both the storage of fatty acids as TRIGLYCERIDES, and their release for mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation in response to metabolic needs.

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