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Molybdenum.

08:00 EDT 1st May 2018 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Molybdenum."

Molybdenum, a trace element essential for micro-organisms, plants, and animals, was discovered in 1778 by a Swedish chemist named Karl Scheele. Initially mistaken for lead, molybdenum was named after the Greek work molybdos, meaning lead-like. In the 1930s, it was recognized that ingestion of forage with high amounts of molybdenum by cattle caused a debilitating condition. In the 1950s, the essentiality of molybdenum was established with the discovery of the first molybdenum-containing enzymes. In humans, only 4 enzymes requiring molybdenum have been identified to date: sulfite oxidase, xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and mitochondrial amidoxime-reducing component (mARC). Sulfite oxidase, an enzyme found in mitochondria, catalyzes oxidation of sulfite to sulfate, the final step in oxidation of sulfur amino acids (cysteine and methionine). Xanthine oxidase converts hypoxanthine to xanthine, and further converts xanthine to uric acid, preventing hypoxanthine, formed from spontaneous deamination of adenine, from leading to DNA mutations if paired with cytosine in place of thymine. Aldehyde oxidase is abundant in the liver and is an important enzyme in phase 1 drug metabolism. Finally, mARC, discovered less than a decade ago, works in concert with cytochrome b5 type B and NAD(H) cytochrome b5 reductase to reduce a variety of N-hydroxylated substrates, although the physiologic significance is still unclear. In the case of each of the molybdenum enzymes, activity is catalyzed via a tricyclic cofactor composed of a pterin, a dithiolene, and a pyran ring, called molybdenum cofactor (MoCo) (1).

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Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.)
ISSN: 2156-5376
Pages: 272-273

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PubMed Articles [154 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

The Role of Molybdenum Oxysulfide Rings in the Formation of Two-Dimensional Molybdenum Disulfide by Powder Vaporization.

Sulfurization of molybdenum trioxide by elemental sulfur through powder vaporization is a common method used for growth of molybdenum disulfide. Optimization of complexes between sulfur allotropes and...

Effects of micro-fertilizers foliar spray on the content of main effective components of Angelica dahurica.

The zinc, boron and molybdenum were sprayed on the foliage of Angelica dahurica du-ring the vigorous growth period to explore the effects of the combination of zinc, boron and molybdenum fertilizers o...

Molybdenum-Containing Enzymes.

An overview of modern methods used in the preparation and characterization of molybdenum-containing enzymes is presented, with an emphasis on those methods that have been developed over the past decad...

Molybdenum- and tungsten-containing formate dehydrogenases and formylmethanofuran dehydrogenases: structure, mechanism and cofactor insertion.

An overview is provided of the molybdenum- and tungsten-containing enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of formate and CO , focusing on common structural and mechanistic themes, as well as a cons...

Impact of H-termination on the nitrogen reduction reaction of molybdenum carbide as an electrochemical catalyst.

Transition metal molybdenum (Mo) exhibits a strong capacity to adsorb nitrogen (N2), but the Mo-N2 interaction is too strong and thus it is difficult for ammonia (NH3) to be released from the catalyst...

Clinical Trials [6 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Study of cPMP (Precusor Z) to Treat Molybdenum Cofactor Deficiency (MoCD) Type A

Molybdenum Cofactor Deficiency Type A (MoCD) is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder that is essentially fatal early in life. Naturally occurring cPMP is present in the body of all hea...

Study of ALXN1101 in Neonates With Molybdenum Cofactor Deficiency (MOCD) Type A

To evaluate the safety and efficacy of ALXN1101 in neonate patients with MoCD Type A

Safety & Efficacy Study of ALXN1101 in Pediatric Patients With MoCD Type A Currently Treated With rcPMP

This study will include a screening period, a 6-month treatment period, and a 30-month, long-term extension period.

Serum Metal Ion Concentration After Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)

All metal implants release metal ions because of corrosion. Total knee arthroplasty implants have large metal surface areas and therefore substantial potential for corrosion. It is planned...

A Blinded Study Evaluating the Accuracy and Safety of Cyclotron-produced 99mTc in Adult Patients

The purpose of this study is to evaluate technetium-99m (99mTc) pertechnetate produced by a cyclotron as a replacement for 99mTc pertechnetate obtained from a generator containing the pare...

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

An alloy of 60% cobalt, 20% chromium, 5% molybdenum, and traces of other substances. It is used in dentures, certain surgical appliances, prostheses, implants, and instruments.

An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.

A colorimetric reagent for iron, manganese, titanium, molybdenum, and complexes of zirconium. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.

An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a FLAVOPROTEIN that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM and is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. It was formerly classified as EC 1.6.6.1.

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