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Molybdenum, a trace element essential for micro-organisms, plants, and animals, was discovered in 1778 by a Swedish chemist named Karl Scheele. Initially mistaken for lead, molybdenum was named after the Greek work molybdos, meaning lead-like. In the 1930s, it was recognized that ingestion of forage with high amounts of molybdenum by cattle caused a debilitating condition. In the 1950s, the essentiality of molybdenum was established with the discovery of the first molybdenum-containing enzymes. In humans, only 4 enzymes requiring molybdenum have been identified to date: sulfite oxidase, xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and mitochondrial amidoxime-reducing component (mARC). Sulfite oxidase, an enzyme found in mitochondria, catalyzes oxidation of sulfite to sulfate, the final step in oxidation of sulfur amino acids (cysteine and methionine). Xanthine oxidase converts hypoxanthine to xanthine, and further converts xanthine to uric acid, preventing hypoxanthine, formed from spontaneous deamination of adenine, from leading to DNA mutations if paired with cytosine in place of thymine. Aldehyde oxidase is abundant in the liver and is an important enzyme in phase 1 drug metabolism. Finally, mARC, discovered less than a decade ago, works in concert with cytochrome b5 type B and NAD(H) cytochrome b5 reductase to reduce a variety of N-hydroxylated substrates, although the physiologic significance is still unclear. In the case of each of the molybdenum enzymes, activity is catalyzed via a tricyclic cofactor composed of a pterin, a dithiolene, and a pyran ring, called molybdenum cofactor (MoCo) (1).
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.)
Sulfurization of molybdenum trioxide by elemental sulfur through powder vaporization is a common method used for growth of molybdenum disulfide. Optimization of complexes between sulfur allotropes and...
An overview of modern methods used in the preparation and characterization of molybdenum-containing enzymes is presented, with an emphasis on those methods that have been developed over the past decad...
An overview is provided of the molybdenum- and tungsten-containing enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of formate and CO , focusing on common structural and mechanistic themes, as well as a cons...
Transition metal molybdenum (Mo) exhibits a strong capacity to adsorb nitrogen (N2), but the Mo-N2 interaction is too strong and thus it is difficult for ammonia (NH3) to be released from the catalyst...
Tungsten (W) interferes with molybdenum (Mo) binding sites and has been associated with prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD). We evaluated if (1) W exposure is prospectively associated with incident...
Molybdenum Cofactor Deficiency Type A (MoCD) is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder that is essentially fatal early in life. Naturally occurring cPMP is present in the body of all hea...
To evaluate the safety and efficacy of ALXN1101 in neonate patients with MoCD Type A
This study will include a screening period, a 6-month treatment period, and a 30-month, long-term extension period.
All metal implants release metal ions because of corrosion. Total knee arthroplasty implants have large metal surface areas and therefore substantial potential for corrosion. It is planned...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate technetium-99m (99mTc) pertechnetate produced by a cyclotron as a replacement for 99mTc pertechnetate obtained from a generator containing the pare...
An alloy of 60% cobalt, 20% chromium, 5% molybdenum, and traces of other substances. It is used in dentures, certain surgical appliances, prostheses, implants, and instruments.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.
A colorimetric reagent for iron, manganese, titanium, molybdenum, and complexes of zirconium. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.
An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a FLAVOPROTEIN that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM and is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. It was formerly classified as EC 188.8.131.52.
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (i.e., increase the rates of) chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. Almost all chemical re...