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The cerebral cortex modulates early sensory processing via feed-back connections to sensory pathway nuclei. The functions of this top-down modulation for human behavior are poorly understood. Here, we show that top-down modulation of the visual sensory thalamus (the lateral geniculate body, LGN) is involved in visual-speech recognition. In two independent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, LGN response increased when participants processed fast-varying features of articulatory movements required for visual-speech recognition, as compared to temporally more stable features required for face identification with the same stimulus material. The LGN response during the visual-speech task correlated positively with the visual-speech recognition scores across participants. In addition, the task-dependent modulation was present for speech movements and did not occur for control conditions involving non-speech biological movements. In face-to-face communication, visual speech recognition is used to enhance or even enable understanding what is said. Speech recognition is commonly explained in frameworks focusing on cerebral cortex areas. Our findings suggest that task-dependent modulation at subcortical sensory stages has an important role for communication: Together with similar findings in the auditory modality the findings imply that task-dependent modulation of the sensory thalami is a general mechanism to optimize speech recognition.
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Correlations and inferred causal interactions among local field potentials (LFPs) simultaneously recorded in distinct visual brain areas can provide insight into how visual and cognitive signals are c...
The aim of this study was to address the potential for the auditory mismatch negativity (aMMN) to be used in applied event-related potential (ERP) studies by determining whether the aMMN would be an a...
The independent effects of cognitive and visual load on visual Detection Response Task (vDRT) reaction times were studied in a driving simulator by performing a backwards counting task and a simple dr...
The visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) is a component of the human event-related brain potential (ERP) that indicates the automatic processing and detection of changes in the visual sensory input. The ...
When one eye does not function well during development, the visual cortex becomes less responsive to it and visual acuity declines. New research suggests that reduced response strength and deteriorati...
Reading can be an uncomfortable and difficult task for some people. Symptoms include unpleasant somatic and perceptual effects, such as eye-strain, headache, and blurred text, despite norm...
Better understand the impact of visual impairment on daily task performance in patients with eye diseases of the visual pathways, such as glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration (AMD...
The purpose of this research is to assess the efficacy of a visual training task on reducing the size of a visual field deficit caused by brain damage in adults, and its ability to improve...
The ideomotor theory of action control is considered to be central to the understanding of human voluntary action. According to the ideomotor theory, an action is represented in terms of i...
This study will investigate the effect of enhanced visual and cross-modal environments upon the visual attentiveness of multiply handicapped children diagnosed with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and...
Temporary visual deficit or impaired visual processing occurring in a rapid serial visual presentation task. After a person identifies the first of two visual targets, the ability to detect the second target is impaired for the next few hundred milliseconds. This phenomenon is called attentional blink.
The functional superiority and preferential use of one eye over the other. The term is usually applied to superiority in sighting (VISUAL PERCEPTION) or motor task but not difference in VISUAL ACUITY or dysfunction of one of the eyes. Ocular dominance can be modified by visual input and NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions. Visual disability refers to inability of the individual to perform specific visual tasks, such as reading, writing, orientation, or traveling unaided. (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132)
Partial or complete loss of vision in one half of the visual field(s) of one or both eyes. Subtypes include altitudinal hemianopsia, characterized by a visual defect above or below the horizontal meridian of the visual field. Homonymous hemianopsia refers to a visual defect that affects both eyes equally, and occurs either to the left or right of the midline of the visual field. Binasal hemianopsia consists of loss of vision in the nasal hemifields of both eyes. Bitemporal hemianopsia is the bilateral loss of vision in the temporal fields. Quadrantanopsia refers to loss of vision in one quarter of the visual field in one or both eyes.
Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Some biological therapies for cancer use vaccines or bacteria to stimulate the body&rs...
Hearing, auditory perception, or audition is the ability to perceive sound by detecting vibrations, changes in the pressure of the surrounding medium through time, through an organ such as the ear. Sound may be heard through solid, liquid, or gaseous mat...