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Recent measles and pertussis outbreaks in the US have focused national attention on state laws governing exemptions from mandatory vaccines for school entry. After several years of increases in nonmedical exemptions in California, the state assembly passed Assembly Bill 2109 in 2012, making nonmedical exemptions more difficult to obtain by requiring parents to obtain a signature from a health care provider. We used data from the California Department of Public Health to describe changes in the overall prevalence of personal belief exemptions and compositional changes in immunization status for the school years 2012-2013 through 2015-2016. Following the implementation of Assembly Bill 2109, the statewide exemption rate declined from 3.1% in 2013 to 2.5% in 2014 and then to 2.3% in 2015, representing a 25% reduction from the 2013 peak. Continued surveillance of exemption rates and vaccine refusal are needed to monitor and protect herd immunity against vaccine-preventable diseases.
This article was published in the following journal.
Previous work demonstrates that individuals who obtain exemptions from school immunization requirements are geographically clustered, making regional differences in vaccination coverage a significant ...
In a Policy Forum, Peter Hotez and colleagues discuss vaccination exemptions in US states and possible consequences for infectious disease outbreaks.
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002578.].
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A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.
A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A bacterial vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in man and animal. Brucella abortus vaccine is used for the immunization of cattle, sheep, and goats.
Test designed to identify students suitable for admission into a graduate or undergraduate curriculum.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one ...
Measles (morbilli, rubeola) is a highly infectious viral illness that can be very unpleasant and can sometimes lead to serious complications. The initial symptoms of measles develop around 10 days after initial infection: a high temperature (...