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The packaging signal (Ψ) and Rev. responsive element (RRE), enable unspliced HIV-1 RNAs' export from the nucleus and packaging into virions. For some retroviruses, engrafting Ψ onto a heterologous RNA is sufficient to direct encapsidation. In contrast, HIV-1 RNA packaging requires 5' leader Ψ elements plus poorly defined additional features. We previously defined minimal 5' leader sequences competitive with intact Ψ for HIV-1 packaging, and here examined the potential roles of additional downstream elements. The findings confirmed that together, HIV-1 5' leader Ψ sequences plus a nuclear export element are sufficient to specify packaging. However, RNAs trafficked using a heterologous export element did not compete well with RNAs using HIV-1's RRE. Furthermore, some RNA additions to well-packaged minimal vectors rendered them packaging-defective. These defects were rescued by extending gag sequences in their native context. To understand these packaging defects' causes, in vitro dimerization properties of RNAs containing minimal packaging elements were compared to RNAs with sequence extensions that were or were not compatible with packaging. In vitro dimerization was found to correlate with packaging phenotypes, suggesting that HIV-1 evolved to prevent 5' leader residues' base pairing with downstream residues and misfolding of the packaging signal. Our findings explain why gag sequences have been implicated in packaging and show that RRE's packaging contributions appear more specific than nuclear export alone. Paired with recent work showing that sequences upstream of Ψ can dictate RNA folds, the current work explains how genetic context of minimal packaging elements contributes to HIV-1 RNA fate determination.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of molecular biology
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Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for drugs and biological products. These include those in ampule, capsule, tablet, solution or other forms. Packaging includes immediate-containers, secondary-containers, and cartons. In the United States, such packaging is controlled under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which also stipulates requirements for tamper-resistance and child-resistance. Similar laws govern use elsewhere. (From Code of Federal Regulations, 21 CFR 1 Section 210, 1993) DRUG LABELING is also available.
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.
The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.
AIDS and HIV
AIDS; Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. HIV; Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV infection causes AIDS. HIV infection also causes the production of anti-HIV antibodies, which forms the test for HIV in patients. People who have the HIV antibodies are ...