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Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (GT) and Bernard-Soulier's syndrome (BSS) are well-understood congenital bleeding disorders, showing defect/deficiency of platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa (integrin αIIbβ3) and GPIb-IX-V complexes respectively, with relevant clinical, laboratory, biochemical, and genetic features. Following platelet transfusion, affected patients may develop antiplatelet antibodies (to human leukocyte antigen [HLA], and/or αIIbβ3 in GT or GPIb-IX in BSS), which may render future platelet transfusion ineffective. Anti-αIIbβ3 and anti-GPIb-IX may also cross the placenta during pregnancy to cause thrombocytopenia and bleeding in the fetus/neonate. This review will focus particularly on the better studied GT to illustrate the natural history and complications of platelet alloimmunization. BSS will be more briefly discussed. Platelet transfusion, if unavoidable, should be given judiciously with good indications. Patients following platelet transfusion, and women during and after pregnancy, should be monitored for the development of platelet antibodies. There is now a collection of data suggesting the safety and effectiveness of recombinant activated factor VII in the management of affected patients with platelet antibodies.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis
Mass cytometry (MC) uses mass spectrometry to simultaneously detect multiple metal-conjugated antibodies on single cells, thereby enabling the detailed study of cellular function. Here, for the first ...
Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of platelet function caused by mutations in the genes coding for integrin αIIbβ3. The aim of this study was to examine the outcom...
Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP) is diagnosed by exclusion of other causes for thrombocytopenia. Reliable detection of platelet autoantibodies would support the clinical diagnosis of ITP and prevent misd...
Inherited platelet disorders are rare bleeding syndromes due to either platelet function abnormalities or thrombocytopenia which may be associated with functional defects. The haemorrhagic symptoms ob...
Prevention of red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) focuses on phenotypic RBC matching. We assessed alloimmunization among transfused patients with SCD after...
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Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.
Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex important for platelet adhesion and aggregation. It is an integrin complex containing INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB and INTEGRIN BETA3 which recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present on several adhesive proteins. As such, it is a receptor for FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; FIBRONECTIN; VITRONECTIN; and THROMBOSPONDINS. A deficiency of GPIIb-IIIa results in GLANZMANN THROMBASTHENIA.
Human alloantigens expressed only on platelets, specifically on platelet membrane glycoproteins. These platelet-specific antigens are immunogenic and can result in pathological reactions to transfusion therapy.
Glycoproteins attached to the surface coat of the trypanosome. Many of these glycoproteins show amino acid sequence diversity expressed as antigenic variations. This continuous development of antigenically distinct variants in the course of infection ensures that some trypanosomes always survive the development of immune response to propagate the infection.
Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex essential for normal platelet adhesion and clot formation at sites of vascular injury. It is composed of three polypeptides, GPIb alpha, GPIb beta, and GPIX. Glycoprotein Ib functions as a receptor for von Willebrand factor and for thrombin. Congenital deficiency of the GPIb-IX complex results in Bernard-Soulier syndrome. The platelet glycoprotein GPV associates with GPIb-IX and is also absent in Bernard-Soulier syndrome.
Congenital conditions are those which are present from birth. They include structural deformities or loss of function in organs such as the <!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->heart, gut or skeletal system. They can be corrected by <!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->surgery, m...
An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples of antigens include microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produc...
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