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Wood-degrading fungi use a sequence of oxidative and hydrolytic mechanisms to loosen lignocellulose and then release and metabolize embedded sugars. These temporal sequences have recently been mapped at high resolution using directional growth on wood wafers, revealing previously obscured dynamics as fungi progressively colonize wood. Here, we applied secretomics in the same wafer design to track temporal trends on aspen decayed by fungi with distinct nutritional modes: two brown rot-type (BR) fungi (, ) and two white rot (WR) (, ). We matched secretomic data from three zones of decay (early, middle, late) with enzyme activities in these zones, and we included measures of total protein and ergosterol as measures of fungal biomass. In line with previous transcriptomics data, the fungi tested showed an initial investment in pectinases and a delayed investment in glycoside hydrolases (GHs). Brown rot fungi also staggered abundance of some oxidoreductases ahead of GHs to produce a familiar two-step mechanism. White rot fungi, however, showed late-stage investment in pectinases as well, unlike brown rot fungi. Ligninolytic enzyme activities and abundances were also different between the two white rot fungi. Specifically, ligninolytic activity was delayed, explained almost entirely by the activity and abundance of five atypical manganese peroxidases, unlike more varied peroxidases and laccases in These secretomic analyses support brown rot patterns generated via transcriptomics, they reveal distinct patterns among and within rot types, and they link spectral counts with activities to help functionalize these multi-strain secretomic data. Wood decay, primarily driven by wood degrading basidiomycetes, is an essential component of global carbon cycles and decay mechanisms are essential for understanding forest ecosystem function. These fungi efficiently consolidate pretreatment and saccharification of wood at mild conditions, making them promising templates for low-cost lignocellulose conversion. Species are categorized as ligninolytic white rots and polysaccharide-selective brown rots, with considerable undescribed variability in decay mechanism that may manifest in the sequential variation in protein secretion over the progression of decay. Here we resolved spatially, a temporal progression of decay on intact wood wafers and compared secretome dynamics in two white and two brown rot fungi. We identified several universal mechanistic components among decay types including early pectinolytic "pretreatment" and later stage glycoside hydrolase-mediated saccharification. Interspecific comparisons also identified considerable mechanistic diversity within rot types, indicating there are multiple avenues to facilitate white and brown rot.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Applied and environmental microbiology
Obesity is the results of abnormal adipose development and energy metabolism. Using VEGFB knockout and inducible VEGF down regulation mouse models, we have shown that VEGFB inactivation caused expansi...
Increasing obesity rates have driven research into dietary support for body weight control, but previous studies have only assessed changes in body weight of ± 3 kg. We investigated the relationships...
Obesity involves a contrasting expansion of the energy-storing white fat and loss of functionally competent brown fat, an energy-consuming thermogenic adipose. Leveraging our understanding of white an...
Immune cells were recently found to have an unexpected involvement in controlling the thermogenic activity of brown and beige adipose tissue. Here, we review how macrophages, eosinophils, type 2 innat...
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy as heat and its activity correlates with leanness in human adults. Understanding the mechanisms behind the activation of BAT and the process of "browning",...
Glycemic carbohydrates are associated with metabolic disturbances, such as type II diabetes, due to rapid digestion of starch into glucose. The specific properties of starch within these f...
The specific aim of this study is to determine the effects of substituting brown for white rice on the treatment of metabolic syndrome (MetS).
Obesity and metabolic disease result when energy intake consistently exceeds energy expenditure. One appealing new target for treatment is the activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT), an ...
This is study is to assess pulmonary and systemic effects of exposure to wood smoke. Healthy volunteers will be expose under two different occasion to wood smoke and filtered air under two...
To determine whether pharmacological stimulation of supraclavicular Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT or "Brown Fat") and subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue (WAT) using an FDA-approved beta3 agonis...
Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p321)
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). beta-3 Adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.
A neurosurgical procedure that removes the anterior TEMPORAL LOBE including the medial temporal structures of CEREBRAL CORTEX; AMYGDALA; HIPPOCAMPUS; and the adjacent PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS. This procedure is generally used for the treatment of intractable temporal epilepsy (EPILEPSY, TEMPORAL LOBE).
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (i.e., increase the rates of) chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. Almost all chemical re...
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...