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Upon gastrulation, the mammalian conceptus transforms rapidly from a simple bilayer into a multi-layered embryo enveloped by its extraembryonic membranes. Impaired development of the amnion, the innermost membrane, causes major malformations. To clarify the origin of the mouse amnion, we used single cell-labelling and clonal analysis. We identified four clone types with distinct clonal growth patterns in amniotic ectoderm (AmEc). Two main types have progenitors in extreme proximal-anterior epiblast. Early descendants initiate and expand AmEc posteriorly, while descendants of cells remaining anteriorly later expand AmEc from its anterior side. Amniogenesis is abnormal in embryos deficient in the BMP signalling effector SMAD5, with delayed closure of the proamniotic canal, and aberrant amnion and folding morphogenesis. Transcriptomics of individual mutant amnions isolated before visible malformations, and tetraploid chimera analysis, revealed two amnion defect sets. We attribute them to impairment of progenitors of the two main cell populations in AmEc and to compromised cuboidal-to-squamous transition of anterior AmEc. In both cases, SMAD5 is critical for expanding AmEc rapidly into a stretchable squamous sheet to accommodate exocoelom expansion, axial growth and folding morphogenesis.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Development (Cambridge, England)
The aim of commencing treatment in younger age is to rectify the developing dento-alveolar, skeletal and muscular imbalances. With growing dependence on arch development and expansion, the pendulum is...
Based on the electromagnetic equations, we have reinvestigated the propagation of a surface plasmon mode on a metal-dielectric interface with a discontinuity. Our rigorous study of the boundary condit...
Bilaterian embryos are triploblastic organisms which develop three complete germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm). While the ectoderm develops mainly from the animal hemisphere, there is dive...
We aimed to assess the correlations among multiple cytokine concentrations in the maternal plasma, cervicovaginal fluid (CVF), and amniotic fluid (AF) compartments in women with preterm premature rupt...
Cervical insufficiency is a precursor of preterm birth. Treatment with emergency cervical cerclage is contraindicated in the presence of intra-amniotic infection. Detecting infection with Gram stain a...
The purpose of this study is to collect clinical specimens and corresponding clinical data to develop a non-invasive test for detection of intra-amniotic infection and prediction of preter...
A retrospective study including 22 patients who have undergone amniotic membrane transplant in our unit up till 2016. Confocal microscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography ...
The aim of the study is to determine the efficacy of an Amniotic Fluid Tissue Product for pain relief and functional improvements for all types of musculoskeletal conditions. The study is ...
Hypothesis: Gastroschisis is a localised disruption of the abdominal layer. It occurs early in gestation, and the bowel is therefore bathing in the amniotic fluid and can be constricted at...
A multi-centered, prospective study, involving pregnant women presenting to the labor and delivery unit of collaborating clinical study sites with preterm labor and intact amniotic membran...
An increased number of contiguous trinucleotide repeats in the DNA sequence from one generation to the next. The presence of these regions is associated with diseases such as FRAGILE X SYNDROME and MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY. Some CHROMOSOME FRAGILE SITES are composed of sequences where trinucleotide repeat expansion occurs.
A condition of abnormally high AMNIOTIC FLUID volume, such as greater than 2,000 ml in the LAST TRIMESTER and usually diagnosed by ultrasonographic criteria (AMNIOTIC FLUID INDEX). It is associated with maternal DIABETES MELLITUS; MULTIPLE PREGNANCY; CHROMOSOMAL DISORDERS; and congenital abnormalities.
Techniques for separating distinct populations of cells.
The innermost membranous sac that surrounds and protects the developing embryo which is bathed in the AMNIOTIC FLUID. Amnion cells are secretory EPITHELIAL CELLS and contribute to the amniotic fluid.
Blocking of maternal circulation by AMNIOTIC FLUID that is forced into uterine VEINS by strong UTERINE CONTRACTION near the end of pregnancy. It is characterized by the sudden onset of severe respiratory distress and HYPOTENSION that can lead to maternal DEATH.
Cloning in biology is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects or plants reproduce asexually. Cloning in biotechnology refers to processes used to cre...