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By treating each examination as a polytomous item and a grade that a student achieved in the exam as a score on the item, the partial credit model (PCM) has been used to analyse data from examinations in 16 GCSE subjects taken by 16-year olds in England. These examinations are provided by four different exam boards. By further treating students taking the exams testing the same subject but provided by different exam boards as different subgroups, differential category functioning (DCF) analysis was used to investigate the comparability of standards at specific grades in the examinations between the exam boards. It was found that for most of the grades across the examinations, the magnitude of the DCF effect with respect to exam boards for the majority of the subjects studied is small, with the differences between grade difficulties for individual exam boards and the all-board difficulty in the unit of grade being less than one fifth of a grade. The effect of DCF varies between subjects and between grades within the same subject, with higher grades shown to be generally more comparable in standards than the lower grades between the exam boards.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of applied measurement
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A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
The inspection of one's own body, usually for signs of disease (e.g., BREAST SELF-EXAMINATION, testicular self-examination).
Theoretical models simulating behavior or activities in nursing, including nursing care, management and economics, theory, assessment, research, and education. Some examples of these models include Orem Self-Care Model, Roy Adaptation Model, and Rogers Life Process Model.
A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.