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Ketogenic diet attenuates oxidative stress and inflammation after spinal cord injury by activating Nrf2 and suppressing the NF-κB signaling pathways.

08:00 EDT 9th June 2018 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Ketogenic diet attenuates oxidative stress and inflammation after spinal cord injury by activating Nrf2 and suppressing the NF-κB signaling pathways."

Oxidative stress and inflammation are two key secondary pathological mechanisms following spinal cord injury (SCI). Ketogenic diet (KD) and its metabolite β-hydroxybutyrate have been found to exhibit anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties both in rats with SCI and in healthy rats; however, the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. We investigated the effects of KD on the suppression of oxidative stress and inflammation, activation of nuclear factor-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), and inhibition of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway in rats with SCI. We assessed functional recovery and evaluated the status of oxidative stress and inflammation using tests of superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase activity. We further assessed the presence of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and interferon γ (IFN-γ) by ELISA. Western blotting was used to detect Nrf2 and NF-κB pathway-associated proteins in spinal cord tissue. Finally, we measured the levels of the NF-κB downstream genes TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ by western blotting and real-time quantitative PCR. Following SCI, KD improved functional recovery, attenuated oxidative stress and inflammation, and induced Nrf2 activation. In addition, KD suppressed the NF-κB pathway and the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ. Together, these findings provide new insight into the underlying regulatory mechanisms of KD.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Neuroscience letters
ISSN: 1872-7972
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A course of food intake that is high in FATS and low in CARBOHYDRATES. This diet provides sufficient PROTEINS for growth but insufficient amount of carbohydrates for the energy needs of the body. A ketogenic diet generates 80-90% of caloric requirements from fats and the remainder from proteins.

A course of food intake that is high in FATS and low in CARBOHYDRATES. This diet provides sufficient PROTEINS for growth but insufficient amount of carbohydrates for the energy needs of the body. A ketogenic diet generates 80-90% of caloric requirements from fats and the remainder from proteins.

A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).

A diet which is devoid of GLUTENS from WHEAT; BARLEY; RYE; and other wheat-related varieties. The diet is designed to reduce exposure to those proteins in gluten that trigger INFLAMMATION of the small intestinal mucosa in patients with CELIAC DISEASE.

The appearance of carbonyl groups (such as aldehyde or ketone groups) in PROTEINS as the result of several oxidative modification reactions. It is a standard marker for OXIDATIVE STRESS. Carbonylated proteins tend to be more hydrophobic and resistant to proteolysis.

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