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We exposed a headform instrumented with 10 pressure sensors mounted flush with the surface to a shock wave with three nominal intensities: 70, 140 and 210 kPa. The headform was mounted on a Hybrid III neck, in a rigid configuration to eliminate motion and associated pressure variations. We evaluated the effect of the test location by placing the headform inside, at the end and outside of the shock tube. The shock wave intensity gradually decreases the further it travels in the shock tube and the end effect degrades shock wave characteristics, which makes comparison of the results obtained at three locations a difficult task. To resolve these issues, we developed a simple strategy of data reduction: the respective pressure parameters recorded by headform sensors were divided by their equivalents associated with the incident shock wave. As a result, we obtained a comprehensive set of non-dimensional parameters. These non-dimensional parameters (or amplification factors) allow for direct comparison of pressure waveform characteristic parameters generated by a range of incident shock waves differing in intensity and for the headform located in different locations. Using this approach, we found a correlation function which allows prediction of the peak pressure on the headform that depends only on the peak pressure of the incident shock wave (for specific sensor location on the headform), and itis independent on the headform location. We also found a similar relationship for the rise time. However, for the duration and impulse, comparable correlation functions do not exist. These findings using a headform with simplified geometry are baseline values and address a need for the development of standardized parameters for the evaluation of personal protective equipment (PPE) under shock wave loading.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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Specialized clothing or equipment worn for protection against health hazards. Personal Protective Equipment may include MASKS; RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES; HEAD PROTECTIVE DEVICES; EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES; EAR PROTECTIVE DEVICES; PROTECTIVE CLOTHING; and protective footwear.
The detection of genetic variability (e.g., PHARMACOGENOMIC VARIANTS) relevant to PHARMACOGENETICS and PRECISION MEDICINE. The purpose of such genetic testing is to help determine the most effective treatment options and their optimum dosages with least potential risks for DRUG-RELATED SIDE EFFECTS AND ADVERSE REACTIONS.
Maintenance of the hygienic state of the skin under optimal conditions of cleanliness and comfort. Effective in skin care are proper washing, bathing, cleansing, and the use of soaps, detergents, oils, etc. In various disease states, therapeutic and protective solutions and ointments are useful. The care of the skin is particularly important in various occupations, in exposure to sunlight, in neonates, and in PRESSURE ULCER.
Testing or screening required by federal, state, or local law or other agencies for the diagnosis of specified conditions. It is usually limited to specific populations such as categories of health care providers, members of the military, and prisoners or to specific situations such as premarital examinations or donor screening.
Personal devices for protection of the eyes from impact, flying objects, glare, liquids, or injurious radiation.