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For maltose fermentation, budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae operates a mechanism that involves transporters (MALT), maltases (MALS) and regulators (MALR) collectively known as MAL genes. However, functional relevance of MAL genes during sake brewing process remains largely elusive, since sake yeast is cultured under glucose-rich condition achieved by the co-culture partner Aspergillus spp.. Here we isolated an ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS)-mutagenized sake yeast strain exhibiting enhanced maltose fermentation compared to the parental strain. The mutant carried a single nucleotide insertion that leads to the extension of the C-terminal region of a previously uncharacterized MALR gene YPR196W-2, which was renamed as MAL73. Introduction of the mutant allele MAL73L with extended C-terminal region into the parental or other sake yeast strains enhanced the growth rate when fed with maltose as the sole carbon source. In contrast, disruption of endogenous MAL73 in the sake yeasts decreased the maltose fermentation ability of sake yeast, confirming that the original MAL73 functions as a MALR. Importantly, the MAL73L-expressing strain fermented more maltose in practical condition compared to the parental strain during sake brewing process. Our data show that MAL73(L) is a novel MALR gene that regulates maltose fermentation, and has been functionally attenuated in sake yeast by single nucleotide deletion during breeding history. Since the MAL73L-expressing strain showed enhanced ability of maltose fermentation, MAL73L might also be a valuable tool for enhancing maltose fermentation in yeast in general.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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Periplasmic proteins that bind MALTOSE and maltodextrin. They take part in the maltose transport system of BACTERIA.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
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Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
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