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G-quadruplexes are four-stranded nucleic acid structures typically stabilized by GGGG tetrads. These structures are intrinsically fluorescent, which expands the known scope of nucleic acid function and raises the possibility that they could eventually be used as signaling components in label-free sensors constructed from DNA or RNA. In this study we systematically investigated the effects of mutations in tetrads, loops, and overhanging nucleotides on the fluorescence intensity and emission wavelength of more than 500 sequence variants of a reference DNA G-quadruplex. Some of these mutations modestly increased the fluorescence intensity of this G-quadruplex, while others shifted its emission wavelength. Mutations that increased fluorescence intensity were distinct from those that increased emission wavelength, suggesting a tradeoff between these two biochemical properties. Fluorescence intensity and emission wavelength were also correlated with multimeric state: the most fluorescent G-quadruplexes were monomers, while those with the highest emission wavelengths typically formed dimeric structures. Oligonucleotides containing multiple G-quadruplexes were in some cases more fluorescent than those containing a single G-quadruplex, although this depended on both the length and sequence of the spacer linking the G-quadruplexes. These experiments provide new insights into the properties of fluorescent G-quadruplexes, and should aid in the development of improved label-free nucleic acid sensors.
This article was published in the following journal.
It has been discovered recently that besides well-known G-quadruplexes and i-motifs, DNA may adopt another type of noncanonical structures called AGCGA-quadruplexes. Here, we study folding of the VK2 ...
A fluorescent smart probe (SP) was used to detect a mixed-base ribonucleic acids sequence. While the SP presents excellent sensitivity for the target, it gives subtle discrimination between the perfec...
G-quadruplexes are naturally-occurring structures found in RNAs and DNAs. Regular RNA G-quadruplexes are highly stable due to stacked planar arrangements connected by short loops. However, reports of ...
Novel cyanine-based fluorescent probes for the detection of HS were developed. The probes developed are stable under physiological conditions. The water soluble fluorescent probe 2 displayed ultrafast...
Guanine quadruplexes (G4) are four-stranded DNA structures involved in biological functions and promising for nanotechnological applications. Our study examines how G4 topology affects the electronic ...
To evaluate pharmacokinetic properties and drug interactions between D326 and D337 co-administered groups, the CKD-828 alone and the total co-administered groups.
The study hypothesizes that vegetable and protein consumed before a carbohydrate will reduce the glucose response. The vegetables and protein consumed before carbohydrate have different ef...
The discovery of biomarkers for the intake of meats and potatoes is needed for an accurate assessment of the intake of these foods. Twelve healthy subjects were enrolled in a controlled, c...
The evaluation of protein quality has been identified as the top priority question by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. However, the current available met...
T3/T4 endoscopic thoracic sympathicotomy is a widely accepted and effective treatment for primary palmar hyperhidrosis. However, sympathetic ganglions are invisible with traditional thorac...
Higher-order DNA and RNA structures formed from guanine-rich sequences. They are formed around a core of at least 2 stacked tetrads of hydrogen-bonded GUANINE bases. They can be formed from one two or four separate strands of DNA (or RNA) and can display a wide variety of topologies, which are a consequence of various combinations of strand direction, length, and sequence. (From Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34(19):5402-15)
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Fluorescent probe capable of being conjugated to tissue and proteins. It is used as a label in fluorescent antibody staining procedures as well as protein- and amino acid-binding techniques.
The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...