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Protein coding sequences represent only 2% of the human genome. Recent advances have demonstrated that a significant portion of the genome is actively transcribed as non-coding RNA molecules. These non-coding RNAs are emerging as key players in the regulation of biological processes, and act as "fine-tuners" of gene expression. Neurological disorders are caused by a wide range of genetic mutations, epigenetic and environmental factors, and the exact pathophysiology of many of these conditions is still unknown. It is currently recognized that dysregulations in the expression of non-coding RNAs are present in many neurological disorders and may be relevant in the mechanisms leading to disease. In addition, circulating non-coding RNAs are emerging as potential biomarkers with great potential impact in clinical practice. In this review, we discuss mainly the role of microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs in several neurological disorders, such as epilepsy, Huntington disease, fragile X-associated ataxia, spinocerebellar ataxias, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and pain. In addition, we give information about the conditions where microRNAs have demonstrated to be potential biomarkers such as in epilepsy, pain, and ALS.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas
The stability of RNAs represents a crucial point for cell life in that these molecules code for proteins and also play structural and regulatory functions. In this review, we will mainly focus on RNA ...
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are emerging as potent and multifunctional regulators in all biological processes. In parallel, a rapidly-growing number of studies has unravelled associations between aberran...
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a newly appreciated class of RNAs found across phyla that are generated most commonly from back-splicing of protein-coding exons. Recent profiling of circRNAs genome-wide ...
In regulation of gene expression in the ontogenesis of multicellular eukaryotes, in addition to transcription factors, an important role is played by epigenetic factors that control the release of gen...
The accumulation of somatic and genetic mutations which altered the structure and coding information of the DNA are the major cause of neurological disorders. However, our recent understanding of mole...
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The purpose of this study is to seeking a molecular signature of pathological radiation induced fibrosis based on the response of skin fibroblasts after irradiation, comparing two groups o...
Epigenetic modification refers to the change of heritable gene expression occurring in the case of unchanged DNA sequence, including DNA methylation, epigenetic modification, RNAS, chromat...
This study will determine the prevalence of HIV-related neurological disorders in the countries of the Asia-Pacific Region.
Exosomes are part of extracellular vesicles(EVs), and can be secreted into the environment by many types of cells. It has been demonstrated that the content and function of exosomes depend...
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
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The process of aging due to changes in the structure and elasticity of the skin over time. It may be a part of physiological aging or it may be due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, usually through exposure to sunlight.
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Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...