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Protein coding sequences represent only 2% of the human genome. Recent advances have demonstrated that a significant portion of the genome is actively transcribed as non-coding RNA molecules. These non-coding RNAs are emerging as key players in the regulation of biological processes, and act as "fine-tuners" of gene expression. Neurological disorders are caused by a wide range of genetic mutations, epigenetic and environmental factors, and the exact pathophysiology of many of these conditions is still unknown. It is currently recognized that dysregulations in the expression of non-coding RNAs are present in many neurological disorders and may be relevant in the mechanisms leading to disease. In addition, circulating non-coding RNAs are emerging as potential biomarkers with great potential impact in clinical practice. In this review, we discuss mainly the role of microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs in several neurological disorders, such as epilepsy, Huntington disease, fragile X-associated ataxia, spinocerebellar ataxias, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and pain. In addition, we give information about the conditions where microRNAs have demonstrated to be potential biomarkers such as in epilepsy, pain, and ALS.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas
The stability of RNAs represents a crucial point for cell life in that these molecules code for proteins and also play structural and regulatory functions. In this review, we will mainly focus on RNA ...
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are emerging as potent and multifunctional regulators in all biological processes. In parallel, a rapidly-growing number of studies has unravelled associations between aberran...
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a newly appreciated class of RNAs found across phyla that are generated most commonly from back-splicing of protein-coding exons. Recent profiling of circRNAs genome-wide ...
In regulation of gene expression in the ontogenesis of multicellular eukaryotes, in addition to transcription factors, an important role is played by epigenetic factors that control the release of gen...
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Epigenetic modification refers to the change of heritable gene expression occurring in the case of unchanged DNA sequence, including DNA methylation, epigenetic modification, RNAS, chromat...
This study will determine the prevalence of HIV-related neurological disorders in the countries of the Asia-Pacific Region.
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Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
These disorders are related to both SCHIZOPHRENIA SPECTRUM AND RELATED DISORDERS and DEPRESSIVE DISORDERS in terms of symptomatology, family history, and genetics. (DSM-V) .
A family of structurally-related DNA helicases that play an essential role in the maintenance of genome integrity. RecQ helicases were originally discovered in E COLI and are highly conserved across both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Genetic mutations that result in loss of RecQ helicase activity gives rise to disorders that are associated with CANCER predisposition and premature aging.
Disorders related to substance abuse, the side effects of a medication, toxin exposure, and ALCOHOL-RELATED DISORDERS.
Neurological condition characterized by disturbances in VISUAL PERCEPTION, most often of BODY SCHEMA, TIME PERCEPTION and HALLUCINATIONS. It is associated with MIGRAINE, infections (e.g., INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS), FEVER, EPILEPSY, and other neurological and psychiatric disorders.
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Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...