Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a major cause of infectious mortality and morbidity in poultry worldwide. It is an enveloped virus with two outer-membrane proteins-hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion protein (F)-that induce neutralizing antibodies. All NDV strains belong to one serotype. Yet, NDV vaccines, derived from genotype II, do not fully prevent infection or shedding of viruses from other genotypes. The aim of this study was to test if an updated vaccine is required. For this purpose, NDVs isolated from infected, albeit heavily vaccinated flocks, were genetically and immunologically characterized. Amino acid differences in F and HN protein sequences were identified between the vaccine strain and each of the isolates, some specifically at the neutralization sites. Whereas all tested isolates showed similar hemagglutinin-inhibition (HI) titers, 100-100,000 times higher antibody-to-virus ratios were needed to neutralize viral propagation in embryos by the field isolates versus the vaccine strain. As a result, a model and an equation were developed to explain the phenomenon of escape in one-serotype viruses and to calculate the HI values needed for protection, depending on variation rate at key positions. In conclusion, to confer full protection against NDVs that differ from the vaccine strain at the neutralizing epitopes, very high levels of antibodies should be raised and maintained to compensate for the reduction in the number of effective epitopes; alternatively, an adjusted attenuated vaccine should be developed-a task made possible in the current era of reverse vaccinology.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Avian pathology : journal of the W.V.P.A
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes a highly contagious respiratory, reproductive and urogenital tract disease in chickens worldwide, resulting in substantial economic losses for the poultry indu...
Newcastle disease (ND) causes severe economic loss to poultry industry worldwide. Frequent outbreaks of ND in commercial chickens vaccinated with live vaccines suggest a need to develop improved vacci...
H3N8 equine influenza virus (EIV) is an important and significant respiratory pathogen of horses. EIV is enzootic in Europe and North America, mainly due to the suboptimal efficacy of current vaccines...
Eight Vietnamese Newcastle disease virus field isolates from 2008-2015 and 3 vaccine specimens were genotyped based on their full F gene sequences and compared to 80 reference strains representing all...
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes a highly devastating and contagious disease in poultry, which is mainly attributed to extensive tissue damages in the digestive, respiratory and nervous systems. H...
The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential for co-administration of the first dose of CYD Dengue vaccine with childhood vaccination. Primary Objectives: - To desc...
The purpose of this study is to describe the immunogenicity and safety of IMOJEV® in adult and pediatric populations in Vietnam and serve a bridging study to compare immunogenicity, react...
The main target populations for the tetravalent live attenuated dengue virus vaccine are indigenous populations, especially infants less than 2 years old, residing in areas of the world en...
The purpose of this study is to test the safety and immune response to a live attenuated dengue vaccine that could protect people against all 4 types of dengue virus. Live attenuated means...
The re-activating nature of Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) may allow life long boosting when used as a vaccine vector in conjunction with HIV to generate durable immunity systemically and a...
An acute febrile, contagious, viral disease of birds caused by an AVULAVIRUS called NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS. It is characterized by respiratory and nervous symptoms in fowl and is transmissible to man causing a severe, but transient conjunctivitis.
A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...