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Stress is an important contributing factor in the outbreak of infectious fish diseases. To comprehensively understand the impact of catecholamine stress hormone norepinephrine (NE) on the pathogenicity of Aeromonas hydrophila, we assessed variations in bacterial growth, virulence-related genes expression and virulence factors activity after NE addition in serum-SAPI medium. Further, we assessed the effects of NE on A. hydrophila virulence in vivo by challenging fish with pathogenic strain AH196 and following with or without NE injection. The NE-associated stimulation of A. hydrophila strain growth was not linear-dose-dependent, and only 100 μM, or higher concentrations, could stimulate growth. Real-time PCR analyses revealed that NE notably changed 13 out of the 16 virulence-associated genes (e.g. ompW, ahp, aha, ela, ahyR, ompA, and fur) expression, which were all significantly upregulated in A. hydrophila AH196 (p < 0.01). NE could enhance the protease activity, but not affect the lipase activity, hemolysis, and motility. Further, the mortality of crucian carp challenged with A. hydrophila AH196 was significantly higher in the group treated with NE (p < 0.01). Collectively, our results showed that NE enhanced the growth and virulence of pathogenic bacterium A. hydrophila.
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Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila) has been isolated from various fish species in Egypt and is known to carry virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes, which pose risk for public health. The aim...
We investigated the effects of dietary enriched with Shilajit in three dose levels: 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 g kg in the basal diet on growth rate, non-specific immune response, and disease resistance fo...
Fishmeal replacement by rice protein concentrate with xylooligosaccharides supplement benefits the growth performance, antioxidant capability and immune responses against Aeromonas hydrophila in blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).
This study aimed to investigate the effects of fishmeal (FM) replacement by rice protein concentrate (RPC) with a xylooligosaccharides supplement on the growth performance, antioxidant capability and ...
Replacement of fishmeal by spirulina Arthrospira platensis affects growth, immune related-gene expression in gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio var. CAS III), and its challenge against Aeromonas hydrophila infection.
The present study examined the effect of dietary spirulina, Arthrospira platensis on growth performance, blood physiological indices, immune-related gene expressions and resistance of juvenile gibel c...
We report a case of ceftriaxone-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila infection in a 32-year-old man after medicinal leech therapy. The patient underwent a free gracilis muscle flap for dorsal foot soft tiss...
The aim of this study is to assess the developmental patterns of lung function in children affected by growth hormone deficiency after one year of GH therapy.The assessment by specific qu...
The purpose of this study is to examine the short-term effects of two different doses of growth hormone on the brain's secretion of growth hormone and the body's glucose metabolism. We hy...
To evaluate specific markers of cardiovascular risk before and after growth hormone replacement therapy in a population of growth hormone deficient adults, as compared to an age, gender, a...
Brain and nerve cells communicate with each other by releasing and picking up chemicals called neurotransmitters. Norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter used by part of the nervous system a...
Norepinephrine has been recently introduced as a prophylactic vasopressor during Cesarean delivery with promising results ; However, the optimum dose for efficient prophylaxis with the lea...
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that may be pathogenic for frogs, fish, and mammals, including man. In humans, cellulitis and diarrhea can result from infection with this organism.
A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.
A pituitary tumor that secretes GROWTH HORMONE. In humans, excess HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE leads to ACROMEGALY.
An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by short stature, defective GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTOR, and failure to generate INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I by GROWTH HORMONE. Laron syndrome is not a form of primary pituitary dwarfism (GROWTH HORMONE DEFICIENCY DWARFISM) but the result of mutation of the human GHR gene on chromosome 5.
A form of dwarfism caused by complete or partial GROWTH HORMONE deficiency, resulting from either the lack of GROWTH HORMONE-RELEASING FACTOR from the HYPOTHALAMUS or from the mutations in the growth hormone gene (GH1) in the PITUITARY GLAND. It is also known as Type I pituitary dwarfism. Human hypophysial dwarf is caused by a deficiency of HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE during development.
Stress is caused by your perception of situations around you and then the reaction of your body to them. The automatic stress response to unexpected events is known as 'fight or flight'. Discovered by Walter Cannon in 1932, it is the release of h...
Diabetes Diabetes Endocrine Obesity Oxycontin Renal Disease Thyroid Disorders Endocrinology is the study of the endocrine glands and the hormones that they secrete (Oxford Medical Dictionary). There are several groups of h...
Adhd Anorexia Depression Dyslexia Mental Health Psychiatry Schizophrenia Stress Mental health, although not being as obvious as physical health, is very important, causing great unhappiness to those affected, causing add...