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Fentanyl is a potent synthetic opioid used as a narcotic analgesic supplement in general and regional anesthesia as well as in management of persistent, severe chronic pain. Alarming epidemiological and forensic medicine reports, accumulated mainly during the last two decades, point to a growing increase in illicit use of fentanyl, mainly in North America and Europe. Toxicological data indicates that fentanyl use is inextricably linked with polydrug use. There are two main sources of fentanyl on the "recreational" drug market. First, the most common, combines illicitly manufactured fentanyl from clandestine sources. The drug is often mixed up with heroin ("fake heroin") to increase its potency at a little cost, or included in cocaine products. It can also be mixed into and sold as oxycodone-, hydrocodone- or alprazolam-containing tablets. The other way to gain fentanyl is through the diversion of fentanyl-containing medicines, especially transdermal patches (FTPs). Fentanyl extracted from FTP can be administered intravenously, insufflated or inhaled after volatilization. The drug can also be delivered by oral or transmucosal application of the whole patch, or by rectal insertion. The most common overdose symptoms are coma, lethargy, respiratory depression and arrest. Although naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, is the standard drug for fentanyl overdose rescue, attempts to revive patients with naloxone could be unsuccessful, due to the rapid onset of fentanyl's action. As the fentanyl problem is constantly growing, there is an urgent need for new, effective harm-reduction strategies and technologies, as well as overdose maintenance.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Forensic science international
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A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)
An infection with TRICHINELLA. It is caused by eating raw or undercooked meat that is infected with larvae of nematode worms TRICHINELLA genus. All members of the TRICHINELLA genus can infect human in addition to TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS, the traditional etiological agent. It is distributed throughout much of the world and is re-emerging in some parts as a public health hazard and a food safety problem.
Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.
A system of record keeping in which a list of the patient's problems is made and all history, physical findings, laboratory data, etc. pertinent to each problem are placed under that heading.
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Pain is a feeling (sharp or dull) triggered in the nervous system which can be transient or constant. Pain can be specific to one area of the body eg back, abdomen or chest or more general all over the body eg muscles ache from the flu. Without pain ...