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An apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE-ε4) genotype is the strongest common genetic determinant of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The pleiotropic nature of apolipoprotein E has made elucidation of the aetiological basis difficult to establish, which is further complicated by the fact that the penetrance of the APOE-ε4 allele is modulated by sex, age, and nutrition. A greater metabolic consequence of the APOE-ε4 allele is likely to contribute to the fact that two-thirds of AD patients are female. A higher tissue status of the marine n-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is associated with a lower AD risk. However, APOE-ε4 carriers appear less sensitive to the neurocognitive benefits, which may be due to defective blood-brain barrier transport of DHA exacerbated by aging and possibly sex. This suggests higher DHA requirements in this large population subgroup. This narrative review will consider the influence of sex and DHA in modulating APOE-ε4-mediated AD risk.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Neurobiology of aging
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a susceptibility gene for late-onset Alzheimer's disease neuropathology; less is known about the relationship between APOE and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) neuropathology.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent neurodegenerative disease amongst the elderly. The SNPs rs429358 and rs7412 in the APOE gene are the most common risk factor for sporadic AD, and there ar...
As practice effects are common in neuropsychological assessment, this study analyzed their utility to identify individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) at the greatest risk for Alzhe...
The Apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 allele is a well-known risk factor for Alzheimer's Disease (AD), and sleep disturbances are commonly associated with AD. However, few studies have investigated the relati...
The apolipoprotein E ɛ4 (APOE ɛ4) genotype is the major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, its effect on an individual's response to treatment is less well understood. Many s...
This is an observational study with the aim of validating, in a consistent population sample, with appropriate follow-up, whether EEG connectivity analysis combined with the neuropsycholog...
The purpose of this study is to determine the characteristics of those who obtain genetic susceptibility testing for Alzheimer's disease with APOE disclosure and to study the psychological...
This study involves the collection of cognitive and biomarker responses to HIGH and LOW meals in healthy older adults with and without the APOE E4 genotype. Subjects will eat the meal afte...
The purpose of this study is to determine whether chronic DHA (Docosahexaenoic Acid) supplementation slows the progression of cognitive and functional decline in mild to moderate Alzheimer...
The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of CNP520 on cognition, global clinical status, and underlying AD pathology, as well as the safety of CNP520, in people at risk for th...
The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.
A major and the second most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E4 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at only one residue 112 (cysteine is replaced by arginine), and exhibits a lower resistance to denaturation and greater propensity to form folded intermediates. Apo E4 is a risk factor for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.
Abnormal structures located chiefly in distal dendrites and, along with NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES and SENILE PLAQUES, constitute the three morphological hallmarks of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. Neuropil threads are made up of straight and paired helical filaments which consist of abnormally phosphorylated microtubule-associated tau proteins. It has been suggested that the threads have a major role in the cognitive impairment seen in Alzheimer disease.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat ALZHEIMER DISEASE.
A progressive form of dementia characterized by the global loss of language abilities and initial preservation of other cognitive functions. Fluent and nonfluent subtypes have been described. Eventually a pattern of global cognitive dysfunction, similar to ALZHEIMER DISEASE, emerges. Pathologically, there are no Alzheimer or PICK DISEASE like changes, however, spongiform changes of cortical layers II and III are present in the TEMPORAL LOBE and FRONTAL LOBE. (From Brain 1998 Jan;121(Pt 1):115-26)
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