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The ratchet effect-the gradual accumulation of changes within a cultural trait beyond a level that individuals can achieve on their own-arguably rests on two key cognitive abilities: high-fidelity social learning and innovation. Researchers have started to simulate the ratchet effect in the laboratory to identify its underlying social learning mechanisms, but studies on the developmental origins of the ratchet effect remain sparse. We used the transmission chain method and a tower construction task that had previously been used with adults to investigate whether "generations" of children between 4 and 6 years were able to make a technological product that individual children could not yet achieve. 21 children in a baseline and 80 children in transmission chains (each consisting of 10 successive children) were asked to build something as tall as possible from plasticine and sticks. Children in the chains were presented with the constructions of the two preceding generations (endstate demonstration). Results showed that tower heights did not increase across the chains nor were they different from the height of baseline towers, demonstrating a lack of improvement in tower height. However, we found evidence for cultural lineages, i.e., construction styles: towers within chains were more similar to each other than to towers from different chains. Possible explanations for the findings and directions for future research are suggested.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
Recent research has shown that pre-exposure to food can lead to reduced subsequent consumption in older children and adults when they focus on a task with a non-eating goal during exposure. One assump...
The elucidation of odour awareness in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is important. We compared the odour awareness of young children with ASD with those of typical development (TD) chil...
The primary objective was to establish reference intervals for laboratory tests used to assess iron status in young children using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. A seconda...
High ambient temperatures are associated with significant health risk in the United States. The risk to children has been minimally explored, and often young children are considered as a single age gr...
Young children with medulloblastoma have a poor overall survival compared with older children, due to use of radiation-sparing therapy in young children. Radiotherapy is omitted or reduced in these yo...
The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of a pacifier (102 Medical Pacifier, Curaprox, Switzerland) on malocclusions like posterior crossbite, anterior open bite, larger overjet ...
The purpose of this study is to compare the safety and effectiveness (immune response) to one or two doses of adjuvanted H1N12009 influenza vaccine in young children. An adjuvant is an add...
The purpose of this study is to compare the additive effect on eye pressure of Azopt and Alphagan P to Travatan.
In this randomized case control study we will evaluate the additive effect of psychological intervention, i.e CBT-cognitive behavioral treatment in a multi-strategy weight loss program com...
The purpose of the study is to generate pilot data describing test characteristics of contrast enhanced ultrasound in young children with concern for abdominal trauma. The primary objectiv...
A condition in which certain opposing teeth fail to establish occlusal contact when the jaws are closed.
Procedures and programs that facilitate the development or skill acquisition in infants and young children who have disabilities, who are at risk for developing disabilities, or who are gifted. It includes programs that are designed to prevent handicapping conditions in infants and young children and family-centered programs designed to affect the functioning of infants and children with special needs. (From Journal of Early Intervention, Editorial, 1989, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 3; A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, prepared for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 1976)
A malignant solid tumor arising from mesenchymal tissues which normally differentiate to form striated muscle. It can occur in a wide variety of sites. It is divided into four distinct types: pleomorphic, predominantly in male adults; alveolar (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, ALVEOLAR), mainly in adolescents and young adults; embryonal (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, EMBRYONAL), predominantly in infants and children; and botryoidal, also in young children. It is one of the most frequently occurring soft tissue sarcomas and the most common in children under 15. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2186; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1647-9)
Sucking of the finger. This is one of the most common manipulations of the body found in young children.
Absorbent pads designed to be worn by infants and very young children.
Pediatrics is the general medicine of childhood. Because of the developmental processes (psychological and physical) of childhood, the involvement of parents, and the social management of conditions at home and at school, pediatrics is a specialty. With ...