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Swallow and breathing are highly coordinated behaviors reliant on shared anatomical space and neural pathways. Incremental ascent to high altitudes results in hypoxia/hypocapnic conditions altering respiratory drive, however it is not known whether these changes also alter swallow. We examined the effect of incremental ascent (1,045 m, 3,440 m and 4,371 m) on swallow motor pattern and swallow-breathing coordination in seven healthy adults. Submental surface electromyograms (sEMG) and spirometry were used to evaluate swallow triggered by saliva and water infusion. Swallow-breathing phase preference was different between swallows initiated by saliva versus water. With ascent, saliva swallows changed to a dominate pattern of occurrence during the transition from inspiration to expiration. Additionally, water swallows demonstrated a significant decrease in submental sEMG duration and a shift in submental activity to earlier in the apnea period, especially at 4,371 m. Our results suggest that there are changes in swallow-breathing coordination and swallow production that likely increase airway protection with incremental ascent to high altitude. The adaptive changes in swallow were likely due to the exposure to hypoxia and hypocapnia, along with airway irritation.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Respiratory physiology & neurobiology
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Neutral or negatively charged ligands bonded to metal cations or neutral atoms. The number of ligand atoms to which the metal center is directly bonded is the metal cation's coordination number, and this number is always greater than the regular valence or oxidation number of the metal. A coordination complex can be negative, neutral, or positively charged.
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Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.
A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
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