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Exercise results in beneficial health outcomes and protects against a variety of chronic diseases. However, U.S. exercise guidelines recommend identical exercise programs for everyone, despite individual variation in responses to these programs, including paradoxical fat gain. Experimental models of exercise-induced paradoxical outcomes may enable the dissection of underlying physiological mechanisms as well as the evaluation of potential interventions. Whereas several studies have identified individual mice exhibiting paradoxical fat gain following exercise, no systematic effort has been conducted to identify and characterize models of paradoxical response. Strains from the Collaborative Cross (CC) genetic reference population were used due to its high levels of genetic variation, its reproducible nature, and the observation that the CC is a rich source of novel disease models, to assess the impact genetic background has on exercise responses. We identified the strain CC002/Unc as an exercise-induced paradoxical fat response model in a controlled voluntary exercise study across multiple ages in female mice. We also found sex and genetic differences were consistent with this pattern in a study of forced exercise programs. These results provide a novel model for studies to determine the mechanisms behind paradoxical metabolic responses to exercise, and enable development of more rational personalized exercise recommendations based on factors such as age, sex, and genetic background.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Physiological reports
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Asthma attacks following a period of exercise. Usually the induced attack is short-lived and regresses spontaneously. The magnitude of postexertional airway obstruction is strongly influenced by the environment in which exercise is performed (i.e. inhalation of cold air during physical exertion markedly augments the severity of the airway obstruction; conversely, warm humid air blunts or abolishes it).
One of the first INBRED MOUSE STRAINS to be sequenced. This strain is commonly used as genetic background for transgenic mouse models. Refractory to many tumors, this strain is also preferred model for studying role of genetic variations in development of diseases.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.