Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Currently, the national malaria control programme (NMCP) of Sierra Leone recommends artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) as first- and second-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria, respectively, and artesunate + sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy and for infants. In 2016, the NMCP conducted a study to assess the clinical and parasitological responses of children under five years to ASAQ, AL and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA/PPQ) according to the WHO protocol. Day-0 samples were tested for mutations in the Kelch 13 gene (pfk13) and dihydrofolate reductase/dihydropteroate synthase (dhfr/dhps) genes associated with artemisinin and SP resistance, respectively, and amplification in the Pfplasmepsin2 gene for piperaquine resistance. A total of 295 (ASAQ = 128, AL = 64 and DHA/PPQ = 103) eligible children were enrolled at three sites. PCR-corrected 100% adequate clinical and parasitological response and no parasitaemia on day-3 were observed for all patients in each treatment group. Of the 278 samples with interpretable molecular data, only 2.2% carried non-synonymous pfk13 mutants (A578S, I646T), which are not associated with artemisinin resistance. None of the 103 day-0 samples from the DAH/PPQ group had Pfplasmepsin2 gene amplification, confirming the absence of piperaquine resistance. The prevalence of the triple pfdhfr mutant (N51I/C59R/S108N) was close to or reached fixation (97.4-100%). For combined pfdhfr/pfdhps mutation, 55-71% carried the quadruple (N51I/C59R/S108N+A437G) mutant and about 10% the quintuple mutant N51I/C59R/S108N+A437G/K540E. Our findings confirm that ASAQ, AL and DHA/PPQ were highly effective for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in the study areas, and neither pfk13 validated mutations nor Pfplasmepsin2 multiple copies were found. The very low prevalence of the quintuple mutant in this study supports the NMCP's decision to introduce intermittent preventive treatment for infants with SP in the districts with high malaria transmission.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Acta tropica
Due to their remarkable parasitocidal activity, artemisinins represent the key components of first-line therapies against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, the decline in efficacy of artemisinin...
Currently, the most effective antimalarial is artemisinin, which is extracted from the leaves of medicinal herb Artemisia annua L. (A. annua). Previous studies showed that the complex chemical matrix...
Fosmidomycin-piperaquine is being developed as non-artemisinin-based combination therapy to meet the challenge of emerging artemisinin resistance.
Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) have substantially reduced worldwide malaria burden and deaths. But malaria parasites have become resistant to artemisinins. Prior studies suggested two ...
According to the World Health Organization, malaria remains one of the biggest public health problems in the world. The development of resistance is a current concern, mainly because the number of saf...
This is a cross-sectional, observational study using dried blood samples collected from P. falciparum-infected individuals at the time of malaria diagnosis to measure the prevalence of kno...
Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) with artemether lumefantrine (AL) is currently the first line treatment policy in Tanzania. AL is an efficacious drug that also has the capacity to re...
Detection of the drug resistance molecular markers for falciparum and vivax in Longitudinal follow-up samples collected in Shwegyin Township, Bago Region that is Artemisinin Resistance Con...
The current treatment recommendations for P. vivax in pregnant and non-pregnant individuals are to use chloroquine; in non-pregnant patients this is followed by primaquine to prevent relap...
The investigators intend to explore the hypothesis that symptoms of schizophrenia may be reduced by the antimalarial compound artemisinin when used in addition to standard antipsychotic me...
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
Therapies using arts or directed at the senses.
Therapies that involve the TRANSPLANTATION of CELLS or TISSUES developed for the purpose of restoring the function of diseased or dysfunctional cells or tissues.
A numerical rating scale for classifying the periodontal status of a person or population with a single figure which takes into consideration prevalence as well as severity of the condition. It is based upon probe measurement of periodontal pockets and on gingival tissue status.
Malaria is a serious tropical disease spread by mosquitoes. If malaria is not diagnosed and treated promptly, it can be fatal. What causes malaria? Malaria is caused by a type of parasite known as Plasmodium. There are many different types of Plasmod...
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...
Women's Health - key topics include breast cancer, pregnancy, menopause, stroke Follow and track Women's Health News on BioPortfolio: Women's Health News RSS Women'...