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Abuse of prescription opioids is a growing public health crisis in the United States, with drug overdose deaths increasing dramatically over the past 15 years. Few preclinical studies exist on the reinforcing effects of oxycodone or on the development of therapies for oxycodone abuse. This study was conducted to determine if immunopharmacotherapy directed against oxycodone would be capable of altering oxycodone-induced antinociception and intravenous self-administration. Male Wistar rats were administered a small-molecule immunoconjugate vaccine (Oxy-TT) or the control carrier protein, tetanus toxoid (TT), and trained to intravenously self-administer oxycodone (0.06 or 0.15 mg/kg/infusion). Brain oxycodone concentrations were 50% lower in Oxy-TT rats compared to TT rats 30 min after injection (1 mg/kg, s.c.) whereas plasma oxycodone was 15-fold higher from drug sequestration by circulating antibodies. Oxy-TT rats were also less sensitive to 1-2 mg/kg, s.c. oxycodone on a hot water nociception assay. Half of the Oxy-TT rats failed to acquire intravenous self-administration under the 0.06 mg/kg/infusion training dose. Oxycodone self-administration of Oxy-TT rats trained on 0.15 mg/kg/infusion was higher than controls; however under progressive ratio (PR) conditions the Oxy-TT rats decreased their oxycodone intake, unlike TT controls. These data demonstrate that active vaccination provides protection against the reinforcing effects of oxycodone. Anti-oxycodone vaccines may entirely prevent repeated use in some individuals who otherwise would become addicted. Vaccination may also reduce dependence in those who become addicted and therefore facilitate the effects of other therapeutic interventions which either increase the difficulty of drug use or incentivize other behaviors.
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There are limited data of oxycodone pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and on fetal exposure after maternal administration. The present study describes the pharmacokinetics of intravenous oxycodone in ...
Relapse to nonmedical use of prescription opioids often occurs after exposure to places previously associated with drug use. Here, we describe a rat model of context-induced reinstatement of oxycodone...
Opioid use and abuse has reached epidemic levels in the United States. As these drugs are frequently used by women of reproductive age, there has been a significant increase in the number of infants b...
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There are conflicting results in earlier studies concerning the safety and efficacy of epidural oxycodone. In a study by Bäcklund and colleagues, epidural oxycodone was as effective as in...
Intravenous form of oxycodone is recently used for the adjunct of anesthetic agents to avoid adverse effects of the stimulation of endotracheal intubation. The potency ratio of oxycodone t...
The purpose of this study is to test the oxycodone/naloxone combination compared to oxycodone alone in patient's specific type of "chronic cancer pain".
This is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, Phase 3 study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the administration of multiple doses of Oxycodone ...
Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.
Rate of VACCINATION as defined by GEOGRAPHY and or DEMOGRAPHY.
Group activities directed against VACCINATION.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Refusal to receive VACCINATION.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one ...
Clinical Approvals Clinical Trials Drug Approvals Drug Delivery Drug Discovery Generics Drugs Prescription Drugs In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which drugs are dis...
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