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Susceptibility to Candida spp. infection is largely determined by the status of host immunity, whether immunocompromised/immunodeficient or immunocompetent. Interleukin-2 (IL-2), a potent lymphoid cell growth factor, is a four-α-helix bundle cytokine induced by activated T cells with two important roles: the activation and maintenance of immune responses, and lymphocyte production and differentiation. We reviewed the roles of cytokines as immune stimulators and suppressors of Candida spp. infections as an update on this continuously evolving field. We performed a comprehensive search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline (PubMed), and Embase databases for articles published from March 2010 to March 2016 using the following search terms: interleukins, interleukin-2, Candida spp., and immunosuppression. Data from our own studies were also reviewed. Here, we provide an overview focusing on the ability of IL-2 to induce a large panel of trafficking receptors in skin inflammation and control T helper (Th)2 cytokine production in response to contact with Candida spp. Immunocompromised patients have reduced capacity to secrete Th1-related cytokines such as IL-2. The ability to secrete the Th1-related cytokine IL-2 is low in immunocompromised patients. This prevents an efficient Th1 immune response to Candida spp. antigens, making immunocompromised patients more susceptible to candidal infections.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Acta dermatovenerologica Alpina, Pannonica, et Adriatica
To characterize Annexin A1 (ANXA1), FPR2/ALX and cytokines expression in peritoneal endometriosis and to clarify their role in its etiology, a cross-sectional study was performed with forty women in r...
Interleukins are cytokines performing central tasks in the human immune system. Interleukin-36β (IL-36β) is a member of the interleukin-1 superfamily as are its homologues IL-36α and IL-36γ. All o...
The objective of this study was to evaluate cytokines related to natural killer and T-regulatory cells in endometriotic lesions, peritoneal fluid (PF) and the peripheral blood (PB) of patients with de...
The clinical significance of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) protein expression in pancreatic cancer is largely unknown. In this study, we aimed investigate the clinical significance of FG...
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A mechanism by which obesity could influence the increase in obstetric complications as more weight is gained, apart from oxidative stress (3) would be the changes in the expression profil...
The investigators aim at exploring the differential/topographical in-situ expression of cytokines in the central nervous system (CNS) of patients who died with amyotrophic lateral sclerosi...
By contrast to other proinflammatory cytokines which are found up-regulated in the skin of patients with psoriasis, atopic dermatitis or systemic sclerosis, IL-34 is the only cytokine that...
We propose to identify changes in cytokines like adipocytokines and miRNA expression (for example miR-9, miR-16, miR-125, miR-132, miR-146a, miR-150, miR-155, miR-181 and miR-223) in perip...
RATIONALE: Studying samples of tumor tissue from patients with cancer in the laboratory may help doctors learn more about how interleukin-2, interleukin-12, and GM-CSF delivered in microsp...
A subunit of interleukin-23. It combines with INTERLEUKIN-12 SUBUNIT P40, which is shared between the two cytokines, to form in the active interleukin-23 cytokine.
A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.
A clinical syndrome characterized by development, usually in infancy or childhood, of a chronic, often widespread candidiasis of skin, nails, and mucous membranes. It may be secondary to one of the immunodeficiency syndromes, inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, or associated with defects in cell-mediated immunity, endocrine disorders, dental stomatitis, or malignancy.
An interleukin receptor subunit that was originally discovered as a component of the INTERLEUKIN 2 RECEPTOR. It was subsequently found to be a component of several other receptors including the INTERLEUKIN 4 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN 7 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN-9 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN-15 RECEPTOR, and the INTERLEUKIN-21 RECEPTOR. Mutations in the gene for the interleukin common gamma chain have been associated with X-LINKED COMBINED IMMUNODEFICIENCY DISEASES.
Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Some biological therapies for cancer use vaccines or bacteria to stimulate the body&rs...
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...
Allergies Automimmune Disease Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Immunology Vaccine Immunology is the study of immunity and the defence mechanisms of the body. A greater understanding of immunology is needed to develop vaccines, understand ...