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H1N1, one of the most prevalent influenza A virus subtypes affecting the human population, can cause infections varying from mild respiratory syndrome to severe pneumonia. The current H1N1 vaccine needs to be updated annually and does not protect against future outbreaks. Here, we downloaded 2,656 HA protein sequences of human H1N1 viruses from the NCBI influenza database (up to the date of Aug. 2012) and constructed a phylogenetic tree of these H1 proteins via the neighbor-joining method using MEGA 5.0 software. A consensus H1 protein (CH1) was generated and was further modified with published conserved T-cell and B-cell epitopes. Interestingly, this CH1 protein is genetically similar to an H1 isolate obtained during the 1980s (A/Memphis/7/1980), indicating that a universal HA antigen may exist in nature. Vaccination with a DNA vaccine expressing CH1 elicited broadly reactive T-cell and B-cell responses to heterologous H1N1 viruses, though this vaccine did not successfully neutralize pdm09 H1N1 viruses. A combination of CH1 and pdm09 HA in a DNA vaccination neutralized pdm09 H1N1 viruses and protected mice from lethal infections by all representative H1N1 viruses. Moreover, a recombinant chimeric PR8-CH1 virus carrying HA sequence of the consensus H1 and all other seven genes from the PR8 strain was highly attenuated in mice, with a lethal dose (LD) of more than 10 pfu. Vaccination with PR8-CH1 virus provided complete protection against infections by heterologous H1N1 strains. Taken together, a universal H1 antigen, CH1, was developed by constructing a consensus HA sequence, and the PR8-CH1 virus containing this consensus sequence elicited broadly protective immunity against heterologous H1N1 viruses.
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A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
A family of proteins that are related to epidermal growth factor. They share in common a consensus sequence consisting of six spatially conserved CYSTEINE residues which form three intramolecular bonds. This consensus sequence is commonly referred to EGF motif and is considered essential for binding of the proteins to ERB RECEPTORS.
Human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigen encoded by the A locus on chromosome 6. The HLA-A2 antigen is associated with recognition of the INFLUENZA A VIRUS.
Commonly observed BASE SEQUENCE or nucleotide structural components which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE or a SEQUENCE LOGO.
A family of transcription factors found primarily in PLANTS that bind to the G-box DNA sequence CACGTG or to a consensus sequence CANNTG.
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Swine Flu - H1N1 influenza - H7N9
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