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Eliciting broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) targeting envelope (Env) is a major goal of HIV vaccine development, but cross-clade breadth from immunization has only sporadically been observed. Recently, Xu et al (2018) elicited cross-reactive neutralizing antibody responses in a variety of animal models using immunogens based on the epitope of bnAb VRC34.01. The VRC34.01 antibody, which was elicited by natural human infection, targets the N terminus of the Env fusion peptide, a critical component of the virus entry machinery. Here we precisely characterize the functional epitopes of VRC34.01 and two vaccine-elicited murine antibodies by mapping all single amino-acid mutations to the BG505 Env that affect viral neutralization. While escape from VRC34.01 occurred via mutations in both fusion peptide and distal interacting sites of the Env trimer, escape from the vaccine-elicited antibodies was mediated predominantly by mutations in the fusion peptide. Cryo-electron microscopy of four vaccine-elicited antibodies in complex with Env trimer revealed focused recognition of the fusion peptide and provided a structural basis for development of neutralization breadth. Together, these functional and structural data suggest that the breadth of vaccine-elicited antibodies targeting the fusion peptide can be enhanced by specific interactions with additional portions of Env. Thus, our complete maps of viral escape both delineate pathways of resistance to these fusion peptide-directed antibodies and provide a strategy to improve the breadth or potency of future vaccine-induced antibodies against Env's fusion peptide.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PLoS pathogens
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The relationship between an elicited ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE and the dose of the vaccine administered.
A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...
An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples of antigens include microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produc...