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Ischemic heart conditioning has been shown to protect the organ against ischemia/reperfusion injury. Animal studies have revealed that the heart can also be conditioned by non-ischemic procedures, namely physical exercise and tachycardia. Long and short term endurance training, sprint training, resistance or interval training and even one bout of exercise induce cardiac preconditioning, which is manifested by a reduction in post ischemia/reperfusion infarct size, ventricular arrhythmia and improved heart function. Several factors contribute to the exercise-induced heart preconditioning, among which the most important can be: increased activity of the anti-radical defense system, opioids, interleukin-6, nitric oxide, ATP dependent potassium channels, heat shock protein 72 and sphingosine-1-phosphate. A few studies have also shown that one bout of exercise in patients with stable angina increases tolerated workload. According to some data obtained in swine and dogs, stimulated tachycardia before ischemia/reperfusion reduces the infarct size. Future studies are needed to fully clarify the mechanisms responsible for exercise- or tachycardia-induced heart preconditioning against ischemia/reperfusion. It may lead to the development of new treatment modes of the disease.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of physiology and pharmacology : an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society
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The application of repeated, brief periods of vascular occlusion at the onset of REPERFUSION to reduce REPERFUSION INJURY that follows a prolonged ischemic event. The techniques are similar to ISCHEMIC PRECONDITIONING but the time of application is after the ischemic event instead of before.
A technique in which tissue is rendered resistant to the deleterious effects of prolonged ischemia and reperfusion by prior exposure to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion. (Am J Physiol 1995 May;268(5 Pt 2):H2063-7, Abstract)
Exposure of myocardial tissue to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion in order to render the myocardium resistant to the deleterious effects of ISCHEMIA or REPERFUSION. The period of pre-exposure and the number of times the tissue is exposed to ischemia and reperfusion vary, the average being 3 to 5 minutes.
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A vasodilator used in angina of effort or ischemic heart disease.
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