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Methionine partitioning between protein turnover and a considerable pool of transmethylation precursors is a critical process in the neonate. Transmethylation yields homocysteine, which is either oxidized to cysteine (i.e., transsulfuration), or is remethylated to methionine by folate- or betaine- (from choline) mediated remethylation pathways. The present investigation quantifies the individual and synergistic importance of folate and betaine for methionine partitioning in neonates. To minimize whole body remethylation, 4-8-d-old piglets were orally fed an otherwise complete diet without remethylation precursors folate, betaine and choline (i.e. methyl-deplete, MD-) (n=18). Dietary methionine was reduced from 0.3 to 0.2 g/(kg∙d) on day-5 to limit methionine availability, and methionine kinetics were assessed during a gastric infusion of [C]methionine and [H-methyl]methionine. Methionine kinetics were reevaluated 2 d after pigs were rescued with either dietary folate (38 μg/(kg∙d)) (MD + F) (n=6), betaine (235 mg/(kg∙d)) (MD + B) (n=6) or folate and betaine (MD + FB) (n=6). Plasma choline, betaine, dimethylglycine (DMG), folate and cysteine were all diminished or undetectable after 7 d of methyl restriction (P<.05). Post-rescue, plasma betaine and folate concentrations responded to their provision, and homocysteine and glycine concentrations were lower (P<.05). Post-rescue, remethylation and transmethylation rates were~70-80% higher (P<.05), and protein breakdown was spared by 27% (P<.05). However, rescue did not affect transsulfuration (oxidation), plasma methionine, protein synthesis or protein deposition (P>.05). There were no differences among rescue treatments; thus betaine was as effective as folate at furnishing remethylation. Supplemental betaine or folate can furnish the transmethylation requirement during acute protein restriction in the neonate.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Journal of nutritional biochemistry
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A ZINC metalloenzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from BETAINE to HOMOCYSTEINE to produce dimethylglycine and METHIONINE, respectively. This enzyme is a member of a family of ZINC-dependent METHYLTRANSFERASES that use THIOLS or selenols as methyl acceptors.
An NADP-dependent oxidoreductase that catalyses the conversion of 5,10-methyleneterahydrofolate to 5,10-methenyl-tetrahydrofolate. In higher eukaryotes a trifunctional enzyme exists with additional METHENYLTETRAHYDROFOLATE CYCLOHYDROLASE and FORMATE-TETRAHYDROFOLATE LIGASE activity. The enzyme plays an important role in the synthesis of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, the methyl donor for the VITAMIN B12-dependent remethylation of HOMOCYSTEINE to METHIONINE via METHIONINE SYNTHETASE.
A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)
An NAD+ dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of betain aldehyde to BETAINE.
A preparation of METHIONINE that includes a mixture of D-methionine and L-methionine isomers.
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