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Intersegmental transfer (IST) is an important strategy in the target search used by sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins (DBPs), enabling DBPs to search for targets between multiple DNA strands without dissociation. We examined the IST of the tumor suppressor p53 using ensemble stopped-flow and single-molecule fluorescence measurements. The ensemble measurements demonstrated that p53 exhibits very fast IST, whose rate constant was ∼108 M-1 s-1. To determine the domains of p53 responsible for IST, two mutants with deletions of one of its two DNA binding domains were generated. The mutant lacking the disordered C-terminal (CT) domain (the CoreTet mutant) abolished IST, whereas the mutant lacking the structured core domain (the TetCT mutant) maintained IST, clearly demonstrating the importance of the CT domain. Single-molecule fluorescence measurements further demonstrated the transfer of p53 between two tethered DNA strands. The pseudo-wild-type p53 and the TetCT mutant showed significant transfer efficiencies, whereas the transfer efficiency for the CoreTet mutant was zero. These results suggest that ultrafast IST might be promoted by four copies of the CT domain, by binding to two DNA strands simultaneously. Such ultrafast IST might be important to avoid nearby-bound DBPs during the target search process of p53 in nucleus.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Nucleic acids research
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A nuclear and cytoplasmic protein that associates with KINETOCHORES and contains a C-terminal TUDOR DOMAIN. It plays a critical role in the cellular response to DNA DAMAGE and localizes to DOUBLE-STRAND DNA BREAKS. It may also function in M PHASE CELL CYCLE CHECKPOINTS and as an enhancer of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-mediated transcriptional activation.
A gene product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It antagonizes the function of MDM2 PROTEIN (which regulates P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN by targeting it for degradation). p14ARF is produced from the beta mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced alpha transcript, is CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.
An E3 UBIQUITIN LIGASE that interacts with and inhibits TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53. Its ability to ubiquitinate p53 is regulated by TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF.
Functional proteins that do not have unique, stable, folded, three-dimensional native structures or that possess non-ordered regions under physiological conditions. They are characterized by extraordinary structural flexibility and plasticity, which enable them to adopt different conformations in response to different stimuli or different interactions.
A 34 kDa signal transducing adaptor protein that associates with TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR TYPE 1. It facilitates the recruitment of signaling proteins such as TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTOR 2 and FAS ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN to the receptor complex.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...